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Les approches de la vulnérabilité alimentaire dans le sud de Madagascar

  • Isabelle Droy


    (UMR C3ED-IRD-CED, France)

  • Patrick Rasolofo

    (UPDR, Ministère de l'Agriculture, Madagascar)

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    La vulnérabilité alimentaire peut être définie comme la probabilité pour un individu ou un groupe de voir sa sécurité alimentaire menacée par la survenue d'un événement climatique ou économique (sécheresse, chute des prix agricoles etc.) Les individus les plus vulnérables sont ceux qui ont une structure des capacités faible ou peu diversifiée. Cette analyse s'appuie sur une étude empirique de la région du Grand Sud de Madagascar, dont une partie est confrontée régulièrement à des difficultés alimentaires. L'objectif est de comparer les systèmes d'information actuellement en place dans la zone et leur apport dans l'approche par les capabilités. Les niveaux d'observation sont différents selon les méthodologies mises en oeuvre : on passe ainsi du niveau individuel (enquêtes ménages sur les observatoires ruraux) qui permet une approche micro-économique à une approche méso-économique à l'échelle de la commune ou de la région (système d'alerte précoce et enquête communautaire). L'analyse de l'articulation entre les différents niveaux permet de mettre en évidence les synergies et les complémentarités entre les différents systèmes d'information actuellement en place et qui sont destinés à améliorer l'efficacité des interventions de développement et la réduction de la vulnérabilité alimentaire. Food vulnerability can be defined as the probability an individual (or a household) of seeing a decreas its food security when faced with an event such drought. People who are most vulnerable are those who do not have enough capabilities to the risk of falling into chronic food insecurity. This paper describes an empirical analysis of food vulnerability in the South of Madagascar. This area is often facing drought and food security problems. Our aim is to compare three different surveys and their contribution to food vulnerability analysis, using the capability approach. Each survey has a different level of observation, corresponding to its own methodology. The ROR (rural observatories network) survey, which is a household survey can provide individual information allowing micro-economic approach. It is thus well adapted to capability approach. The SAP (early warning system) survey, which is a community survey, provides data on small geographical units, such as village or district. It is also suited for capability approach but better used for understanding social opportunities. In the end, one can see complementarity between different information systems for food vulnerability analysis capability approach, as in this study. (Full text in french)

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    Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 105.

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    Length: 16 pages
    Date of creation: Nov 2004
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:105
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