IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Measure-valued images, associated fractal transforms and the affine self-similarity of images


  • Davide LA TORRE


  • Edward R. VRSCAY


  • Mehran EBRAHIMI


  • Michael F. BARNSLEY



We construct a complete metric space (Y,dY) of measure-valued images, μ:X→M(Rg), where X is the base or pixel space and M(Rg) is the set of probability measures supported on the greyscale range Rg. Such a formalism is well-suited to nonlocal image processing, i. e. , the manipulation of the value of an image function u(x) based upon values u(yk) elsewhere in the image. In fact there are situations in which it is useful to consider the greyscale value of an image u at a point x as a random variable that can assume a range of values Rg of R. One example is the characterization of the statistical properties of a class of images, e. g. , MRI brain scans, for a particular application, say image compression. Another example is statistical image processing as applied to the problem of image restoration (denoising or deblurring). Of course, it is not enough to know the greyscale values that may be assumed by an image u at a point x: one must also have an idea of the probabilities (or frequencies) of these values. As such, it may be more useful to represent images by measure-valued functions. We then show how the space (Y,dY) can be employed with a general model of affine self-similarity of images that includes both same-scale as well as cross-scale similarity. We focus on two particular applications: nonlocal-means denoising (same-scale) and multiparent block fractal image coding (cross-scale). In order to accomodate the latter, a new method of fractal transforms is formulated over the metric space (Y,dY). Nonlocal image processing has recently received a great deal of attention, fuelled in part by the exceptional success of the nonlocal means image denoising method. Fractal image coding is another example of a nonlocal image processing method. Both of these methods, which will be described briefly below, may be viewed under the umbrella of a more general model of affine image selfsimilarity, in which subblocks of an image are approximated by other sublocks of the image. Indeed, a number of other image processing methods that exploit self-similarity and the various example-based methods, also fit naturally under this nonlocal, self-similar framework.

Suggested Citation

  • Davide LA TORRE & Edward R. VRSCAY & Mehran EBRAHIMI & Michael F. BARNSLEY, 2008. "Measure-valued images, associated fractal transforms and the affine self-similarity of images," Departmental Working Papers 2008-45, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano.
  • Handle: RePEc:mil:wpdepa:2008-45

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Davide La Torre & Edward Vrscay & Franklin Mendivil, 2006. "Iterated Function Systems on Multifunctions," UNIMI - Research Papers in Economics, Business, and Statistics unimi-1024, Universitá degli Studi di Milano.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. La Torre, Davide & Marsiglio, Simone & Privileggi, Fabio, 2011. "Fractals and Self-Similarity in Economics: the Case of a Stochastic Two-Sector Growth Model," POLIS Working Papers 157, Institute of Public Policy and Public Choice - POLIS.
    2. Davide La Torre & Simone, Marsiglio & Mendivil, Franklin & Privileggi, Fabio, 2015. "Self-Similar Measures in Multi-Sector Endogenous Growth Models," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis. Working Papers 201509, University of Turin.

    More about this item


    Measure-valued images; multifunctions; nonlocal image processing; self-similarity; nonlocal-means denoising; fractal transforms; iterated function systems;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:mil:wpdepa:2008-45. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (DEMM Working Papers). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.