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How does economic integration influence employment and wages in border regions? The case of the EU-enlargement 2004 and Germany’s eastern border

Author

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  • Nils Braakmann

    (Institute of Economics, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Germany)

  • Alexander Vogel

    (Institute of Economics, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Germany)

Abstract

This paper considers the (short run) employment and wage effects of the 2004 EUenlargement on firms located close to Germany’s Eastern border. We use a 50% sample of Germans plants and apply difference-in-differences-estimators combined with a matching approach. We evaluate changes in total employment, the employment shares of low-skilled and Eastern European workers and the wages for low-skilled, skilled and high-skilled workers in various sectors. Our results suggest negative (short-run) effects of the EU-enlargement on employment in construction and the business services sector, where we also find negative wage effects. Wages and employment in manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade, hotels and restaurants and social and personal service activities seem to have been relatively less affected.

Suggested Citation

  • Nils Braakmann & Alexander Vogel, 2009. "How does economic integration influence employment and wages in border regions? The case of the EU-enlargement 2004 and Germany’s eastern border," Working Paper Series in Economics 142, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:lue:wpaper:142
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Hanson, Gordon H., 1998. "Regional adjustment to trade liberalization," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 419-444, July.
    2. Alexander Vogel, 2009. "The German Business Services Statistics Panel 2003 to 2007," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 129(3), pages 515-522.
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    4. Anja Spengler, 2008. "European Data Watch: The Establishment History Panel," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 128(3), pages 501-509.
    5. Braakmann, Nils & Wagner, Joachim, 2009. "Labor Market Adjustments after a Large Import Shock: Evidence from the German Clothing Industry and the Multi-Fibre Arrangement," IZA Discussion Papers 4633, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Feenstra, Robert C. & Hanson, Gordon H., 1997. "Foreign direct investment and relative wages: Evidence from Mexico's maquiladoras," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3-4), pages 371-393, May.
    7. Alexander Vogel, 2009. "Exporter Performance in the German Business Services Sector: First Evidence from the Services Statistics Panel," Working Paper Series in Economics 111, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
    8. Geishecker, Ingo & Riedl, Maximilian & Frijters, Paul, 2012. "Offshoring and job loss fears: An econometric analysis of individual perceptions," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 738-747.
    9. Hanson, Gordon H., 1996. "Economic integration, intraindustry trade, and frontier regions," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-5), pages 941-949, April.
    10. Robert Feenstra & Gordon Hanson, 2001. "Global Production Sharing and Rising Inequality: A Survey of Trade and Wages," NBER Working Papers 8372, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Nils Braakmann & Alexander Vogel, 2009. "The impact of the 2004 EU-enlargement on enterprise performance and exports of service enterprises in the German eastern border region," Working Paper Series in Economics 124, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
    12. Spengler, Anja, 2008. "The establishment history panel 1975-2005 : handbook version 2.0.0," FDZ Datenreport. Documentation on Labour Market Data 200704_en, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
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    Cited by:

    1. Peng, Jiachao & Xiao, Jianzhong & Zhang, Lian & Wang, Teng, 2020. "The impact of China's ‘Atmosphere Ten Articles’ policy on total factor productivity of energy exploitation: Empirical evidence using synthetic control methods," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    2. Brändle, Tobias & Kalweit, René, 2016. "The Employment Effects of the EU Eastern Enlargement in Germany," VfS Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change 145502, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    3. Fries, Jan, 2014. "Age and skill bias of trade liberalisation? Heterogeneous employment effects of EU Eastern Enlargement," ZEW Discussion Papers 14-113, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    4. Mitze, Timo & Breidenbach, Philipp, 2018. "Economic integration and growth at the margin: A space-time incremental impact analysis," Ruhr Economic Papers 775, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
    5. Vermeulen, Wessel N., 2022. "Stuck outside the single market; Evidence from firms in central and eastern Europe," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 415-434.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    EU-enlargement; economic integration; employment; wages;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • L80 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - General

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