IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The optimal management of wetlands: quantifying trade-offs between flood risks, recreation and biodiversity conservation


  • Ekin Birol

    () (Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge, UK)

  • Nick Hanley
  • Phoebe Koundouri
  • Yiannis Kountouris


This paper employs a choice experiment to estimate the value of management options for the Bobrek wetland in Poland. The local public’s valuation of several wetland management attributes, including flood risk reduction, biodiversity conservation and improvement of recreational access, are investigated. A latent class model and a covariance heterogeneity model are estimated to account for heterogeneity in the preferences of the local public. The results reveal that there is considerable preference heterogeneity across the local public; however on average they derive the highest values from reductions of flooding risk. The results of this study are expected to assist policy makers in undertaking effective flood risk reduction measures and formulating efficient, equitable and sustainable wetland management policies in accordance with the European Union Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC).

Suggested Citation

  • Ekin Birol & Nick Hanley & Phoebe Koundouri & Yiannis Kountouris, 2007. "The optimal management of wetlands: quantifying trade-offs between flood risks, recreation and biodiversity conservation," Environmental Economy and Policy Research Working Papers 28.2007, University of Cambridge, Department of Land Economics, revised 2007.
  • Handle: RePEc:lnd:wpaper:200728

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bowlus, Audra J. & Sicular, Terry, 2003. "Moving toward markets? Labor allocation in rural China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 561-583, August.
    2. Parks, Peter J. & Schorr, James P., 1997. "Sustaining Open Space Benefits in the Northeast: An Evaluation of the Conservation Reserve Program," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 85-94, January.
    3. Nigel Key & Elisabeth Sadoulet & Alain De Janvry, 2000. "Transactions Costs and Agricultural Household Supply Response," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 82(2), pages 245-259.
    4. Emi Uchida & Jintao Xu & Scott Rozelle, 2005. "Grain for Green: Cost-Effectiveness and Sustainability of China’s Conservation Set-Aside Program," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 81(2).
    5. Liu, Shouying & Carter, Michael R. & Yao, Yang, 1998. "Dimensions and diversity of property rights in rural China: Dilemmas on the road to further reform," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(10), pages 1789-1806, October.
    6. Zhang, Linxiu & Rozelle, Scott & Huang, Jikun, 2001. "Off-Farm Jobs and On-Farm Work in Periods of Boom and Bust in Rural China," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 505-526, September.
    7. Ravallion, Martin & Chen, Shaohua, 2005. "Hidden impact? Household saving in response to a poor-area development project," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(11-12), pages 2183-2204, December.
    8. Loren Brandt & Scott Rozelle & Matthew A. Turner, 2004. "Local Government Behavior and Property Right Formation in Rural China," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 160(4), pages 627-627, December.
    9. Arthur Lewbel, 2007. "Coherency And Completeness Of Structural Models Containing A Dummy Endogenous Variable," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 48(4), pages 1379-1392, November.
    10. Weyerhaeuser, Horst & Wilkes, Andreas & Kahrl, Fredrich, 2005. "Local impacts and responses to regional forest conservation and rehabilitation programs in China's northwest Yunnan province," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 85(3), pages 234-253, September.
    11. Avner Ahituv & Ayal Kimhi, 2006. "Simultaneous estimation of work choices and the level of farm activity using panel data," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 33(1), pages 49-71, March.
    12. Deininger, Klaus & Jin, Songqing, 2006. "Tenure security and land-related investment: Evidence from Ethiopia," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(5), pages 1245-1277, July.
    13. Johnson, Phillip N. & Misra, Sukant K. & Ervin, R. Terry, 1997. "A Qualitative Choice Analysis Of Factors Influencing Post-Crp Land Use Decisions," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 29(01), July.
    14. Michael R. Carter & Yang Yao, 2002. "Local versus Global Separability in Agricultural Household Models: The Factor Price Equalization Effect of Land Transfer Rights," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 84(3), pages 702-715.
    15. Louviere,Jordan J. & Hensher,David A. & Swait,Joffre D. With contributions by-Name:Adamowicz,Wiktor, 2000. "Stated Choice Methods," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521788304, March.
    16. Christian Langpap, 2004. "Conservation Incentives Programs for Endangered Species: An Analysis of Landowner Participation," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 80(3), pages 375-388.
    17. Johnson, Phillip N. & Misra, Sukant K. & Ervin, R. Terry, 1997. "A Qualitative Choice Analysis of Factors Influencing Post-CRP Land Use Decisions," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 29(01), pages 163-173, July.
    18. Abbot, Joanne I. O. & Thomas, David H. L. & Gardner, Anne A. & Neba, Sama E. & Khen, Mbony W., 2001. "Understanding the Links Between Conservation and Development in the Bamenda Highlands, Cameroon," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(7), pages 1115-1136, July.
    19. Asfaw, Abay & Braun, Joachim von & Klasen, Stephan, 2004. "How Big is the Crowding-Out Effect of User Fees in the Rural Areas of Ethiopia? Implications for Equity and Resources Mobilization," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(12), pages 2065-2081, December.
    20. Michael R. Carter & Pedro Olinto, 2003. "Getting Institutions “Right” for Whom? Credit Constraints and the Impact of Property Rights on the Quantity and Composition of Investment," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 85(1), pages 173-186.
    21. Park, Albert & Wang, Sangui & Wu, Guobao, 2002. "Regional poverty targeting in China," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 123-153, October.
    22. de Janvry, Alain & Sadoulet, Elisabeth & Zhu, Nong, 2005. "The Role of Non-Farm Incomes in Reducing Rural Poverty and Inequality in China," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt7ts2z766, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
    23. Cernea, Michael M. & Schmidt-Soltau, Kai, 2006. "Poverty Risks and National Parks: Policy Issues in Conservation and Resettlement," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(10), pages 1808-1830, October.
    24. Isabel Vanslembrouck & Guido Huylenbroeck & Wim Verbeke, 2002. "Determinants of the Willingness of Belgian Farmers to Participate in Agri-environmental Measures," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(3), pages 489-511.
    25. Joseph C. Cooper, 2003. "A Joint Framework for Analysis of Agri-Environmental Payment Programs," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 85(4), pages 976-987.
    26. William H. Greene, 1998. "Gender Economics Courses in Liberal Arts Colleges: Further Results," The Journal of Economic Education, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(4), pages 291-300, January.
    27. Hanan G. Jacoby & Guo Li & Scott Rozelle, 2002. "Hazards of Expropriation: Tenure Insecurity and Investment in Rural China," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(5), pages 1420-1447, December.
    28. Xu, Zhigang & Xu, Jintao & Deng, Xiangzheng & Huang, Jikun & Uchida, Emi & Rozelle, Scott, 2006. "Grain for Green versus Grain: Conflict between Food Security and Conservation Set-Aside in China," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 130-148, January.
    29. Greene, W.H., 1996. "Marginal Effects in the Bivariate Probit Model," Working Papers 96-11, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
    30. Carter, Michael R. & Yang Yao, 1999. "Specialization without regret - transfer rights, agricultural productivity, and investment in an industrializing economy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2202, The World Bank.
    31. Hope, R.A., 2006. "Evaluating water policy scenarios against the priorities of the rural poor," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 167-179, January.
    32. Li, Guo & Rozelle, Scott & Brandt, Loren, 1998. "Tenure, land rights, and farmer investment incentives in China," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 19(1-2), pages 63-71, September.
    33. Xu, Jintao & Yin, Runsheng & Li, Zhou & Liu, Can, 2006. "China's ecological rehabilitation: Unprecedented efforts, dramatic impacts, and requisite policies," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(4), pages 595-607, June.
    34. Scherr, Sara J., 1995. "Economic factors in farmer adoption of agroforestry: Patterns observed in Western Kenya," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 787-804, May.
    35. Uchida, Emi & Xu, Jintao & Xu, Zhigang & Rozelle, Scott, 2007. "Are the poor benefiting from China's land conservation program?," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 12(04), pages 593-620, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Ekin Birol & Sukanya Das, 2010. "The Value of Improved Public Services : An Application of the Choice Experiment Method to Estimate the Value of Improved Wastewater Treatment Infrastructure in India," Development Economics Working Papers 23062, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
    2. World Bank Group, 2016. "Valuing Water Resources in Turkey," World Bank Other Operational Studies 25291, The World Bank.
    3. Kragt, Marit Ellen, 2013. "Integrating biophysical and economic systems in a Bayesian Network Hydro-economic framework," Working Papers 153334, University of Western Australia, School of Agricultural and Resource Economics.

    More about this item


    choice experiment; latent class model; covariance heterogeneity model; flood risk; biodiversity conservation; recreation;

    JEL classification:

    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q4 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy
    • R4 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:lnd:wpaper:200728. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Unai Pascual). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.