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La dynamique des inégalités de revenu en France rurale et urbaine (1984-2002)


  • Luc Behaghel



La stabilité globale des inégalités de revenu disponible (après transferts et avant impôt) observée en France entre 1984 et 2002 masque des évolutions significatives au sein du territoire. Tout d’abord, hors Ile-de-France, l’écart se résorbe systématiquement entre pôles urbains, d’une part, et espaces périurbain et rural, d’autre part. Ensuite, au sein de ces différents espaces, les inégalités semblent prendre des trajectoires différentes : elles croissent davantage dans les pôles urbains que dans les communes des espaces périurbain et rural. On décompose ces tendances en trois composantes : changements de composition des populations, changements des rendements des caractéristiques observables des ménages et changements résiduels. Cette décomposition rend assez bien compte du rattrapage effectué par les espaces périurbain et rural, qui s’explique statistiquement par la convergence des trois espaces en termes de composition socioprofessionnelle, et par le fait que les statuts d’emploi évoluent plus favorablement pour les ménages périurbains et ruraux que pour les ménages des pôles urbains. Il est plus difficile de rendre compte statistiquement des évolutions contrastées des inégalités au sein de chaque espace : ces évolutions sont plus ténues et la part attribuée aux différentes composantes dépend de l’ordre dans laquelle la décomposition est menée. Un résultat ressort néanmoins avec robustesse : la tendance plus inégalitaire au sein des pôles urbains tient en partie à la composition de plus en plus contrastée de la population en termes de catégories socioprofessionnelles et d’accès à l’emploi.

Suggested Citation

  • Luc Behaghel, 2006. "La dynamique des inégalités de revenu en France rurale et urbaine (1984-2002)," Research Unit Working Papers 0611, Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquee, INRA.
  • Handle: RePEc:lea:leawpi:0611

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Luc Behaghel & Nathalie Greenan, 2005. "Training and Age-Biased Technical Change : Evidence from French Micro Data," Working Papers 2005-06, Center for Research in Economics and Statistics.
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    France; inequality; income; rural; urban;

    JEL classification:

    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
    • N3 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy

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