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The ART of Life: IVF or Child Adoption?


  • Gumus, Gulcin

    () (Florida Atlantic University)

  • Lee, Jungmin

    () (Seoul National University)


This paper analyzes the effects of child adoption on the utilization of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in the US. Using state-level longitudinal data for 1999-2006, we show that ART use is responsive to changes in adoption markets. Controlling for state-specific fixed effects, the estimated elasticity of ART cycles performed with respect to child adoptions is about -0.13 to -0.15. The responsiveness is higher when we consider infant adoptions, adoptions by older women, and international adoptions while there is no substitutability between ART and adoption of related children. Our findings suggest that public policies regarding adoption, including subsidies, influence ART use.

Suggested Citation

  • Gumus, Gulcin & Lee, Jungmin, 2010. "The ART of Life: IVF or Child Adoption?," IZA Discussion Papers 4761, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4761

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    Cited by:

    1. Moriguchi, Chiaki, 2012. "The Evolution of Child Adoption in the United States, 1950-2010—An Economic Analysis of Historical Trends—," Economic Review, Hitotsubashi University, vol. 63(3), pages 265-285, July.
    2. Moriguchi, Chiaki, 2010. "Child Adoption in Japan, 1948-2008―A Comparative Historical Analysis―," Economic Review, Hitotsubashi University, vol. 61(4), pages 342-357, January.

    More about this item


    infertility treatment; in vitro fertilization (IVF); assisted reproductive technology (ART); child adoption;

    JEL classification:

    • I11 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Analysis of Health Care Markets
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J18 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Public Policy

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