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Intra-Industry Trade between Japan and European Countries: a Closer Look at the Quality Gap in VIIT


  • Yushi Yoshida
  • Nuno Carlos Leitão
  • Horácio Faustino


In this paper, we provide an overview of the development of intraindustry (IIT) trade between Japan and various European countries, including both old and new EU members, as well as emerging Eastern European countries. For the measurement of intra-industry trade, we construct a vertical intraindustry trade (VIIT) measure for various margins of unit price ratios, in addition to a Grubel-Lloyd index. By varying the margins from zero to significantly large values, the share of VIIT in total IIT changes from unity to zero, corresponding to the distributional characteristics of VIIT for each European country. Our empirical model attempts to explain the distributional characteristics of VIIT through foreign direct investments and country characteristics, in addition to traditional determinants of IIT, such as differences in GDP per capita, average GDP, and smaller and larger GDPs. Our sample covers 1988 to 2004 for bilateral trade between Japan and 31 European countries. Our econometric methodology for this panel data uses fixed-effect model estimation for static IIT. We find that intra-industry trade between European countries and Japan increases with their corresponding GDPs. Our preliminary results indicate that it is important to measure a wider range of quality based on relative prices rather than the traditional ratio used in the literature.

Suggested Citation

  • Yushi Yoshida & Nuno Carlos Leitão & Horácio Faustino, 2008. "Intra-Industry Trade between Japan and European Countries: a Closer Look at the Quality Gap in VIIT," Working Papers Department of Economics 2008/53, ISEG - Lisbon School of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, Universidade de Lisboa.
  • Handle: RePEc:ise:isegwp:wp532008

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Egger, Hartmut & Egger, Peter & Greenaway, David, 2007. "Intra-industry trade with multinational firms," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(8), pages 1959-1984, November.
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    4. Krugman, Paul, 1980. "Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 950-959, December.
    5. David Greenaway & Robert Hine & Chris Milner, 1994. "Country-specific factors and the pattern of horizontal and vertical intra-industry trade in the UK," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 130(1), pages 77-100, March.
    6. Yushi Yoshida, 2008. "Intra-Industry Trade Between Japan and Korea: Vertical Intra-Industry Trade, Fragmentation and Export Margins," Discussion Papers 32, Kyushu Sangyo University, Faculty of Economics.
    7. Falvey, Rodney E., 1981. "Commercial policy and intra-industry trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 495-511, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Rosanna Pittiglio & Filippo Reganati, 2012. "Vertical intra-industry trade in higher and lower quality: a new approach of measuring country-specific determinants," International Journal of Economics and Business Research, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 4(1/2), pages 44-62.

    More about this item


    Intra-Industry Trade; Japan-Europe; Quality; Vertical IIT.;

    JEL classification:

    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade

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