Christian Missionaries and Education in Former Colonies: How Institutions Mattered
Using cross-country data for about 70 countries and regional data for about 180 African provinces, we show that competition between Protestant and Catholic missionaries increased schooling in former colonies. Our evidence implies that Protestant missionaries increased schooling in Catholic countries by more than Catholic missionaries, but we cannot reject the hypothesis that the effect of Protestant and Catholic missionaries on educational outcomes was similar when missionaries of both denominations faced the same legal and institutional treatment, We interpret these result in the context of an economic rationale in which different institutions created differences in competitive pressures faced by Catholic and Protestant missionaries.
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