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Peruvian Privatization: Impacts On Firm Performance

  • Máximo Torero

Casi diez años después de la privatización de importantes empresas paraestatales (EPE) del Perú, el balance apriorístico aún no queda claro. En este artículo se analiza el impacto de la privatización mediante un detallado análisis estadístico y econométrico de, en primer lugar, la diferencia (entre el desempeño antes y después de la privatización), y en segundo, las diferencias (el cambio en el desempeño de las empresas privatizadas respecto al cambio en el desempeño de las EPE) entre varios indicadores de rentabilidad, eficiencia de operación, empleo, solvencia y convergencia. Los resultados demostraron, en congruencia con la literatura antecedente, que las compañías privadas son más eficientes y rentables que cualquier compañía gubernamental comparable. En el caso del sector más competitivo, el sistema financiero, se descubrió con el paso del tiempo un efecto de convergencia de los bancos recién privatizados, hacia el desempeño de los bancos privados líderes existentes. A pesar de que el impacto de la privatización sobre el desempleo fue negativo en el corto plazo, pues normalmente las EPE hubieran contratado gente con base en criterios políticos en vez de en criterios técnicos, se demuestra que hubo un considerable aumento en el empleo indirecto mediante la prestación de servicios y que el empleo total, directo e indirecto, ha crecido.

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Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department in its series Research Department Publications with number 3169.

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Date of creation: Nov 2002
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Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:3169
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