IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

A Study of Changing Income Distribution in Kazakhstan Using a New Social Accounting Matrix and Household Survey Data


  • Paul G. Hare
  • Alexander Naumov


Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the successor states have all been moving - albeit at different speeds and in different ways - towards some form of market-type economy. The transition process has been accompanied by major disruption of much existing production, and by large changes in living standards and income distribution. After experiencing deep post-communist recessions, almost the whole region is now growing quite rapidly. But measuring these large and rapid changes is difficult and uncertain due to poor data quality, frequent changes in statistical methodology, and other problems. This paper develops a framework for building a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for Kazakhstan based on the UN 1993 System of National Accounts and Input-Output tables. A highly aggregated macro-SAM is constructed first, mostly using National Accounts data. At the second stage, a disaggregated micro-SAM is built using macro-SAM aggregates and Input-Output tables. To reconcile the Input-Output tables with the National Accounts, we use cross entropy and least squares methods of adjustment. This procedure also allows us to eliminate various inconsistencies in the final SAM. Third, using household survey data, we introduce several household types into the model (essentially, cohorts defined according to their income levels) to enable us to study income distribution and trends in it during Kazakhstan's transition. Finally, we integrate all these elements into a CGE model for Kazakhstan, enabling us to explore the probable impact of rising oil exports on Kazakhstan's income distribution and various inequality measures. All the data used in the paper are relatively easy to obtain from national statistical agencies and the methods developed herein could be applied to building detailed SAMs and associated CGE models for other developing and transition economies where the quality and availability of data is often a problem.

Suggested Citation

  • Paul G. Hare & Alexander Naumov, 2008. "A Study of Changing Income Distribution in Kazakhstan Using a New Social Accounting Matrix and Household Survey Data," CERT Discussion Papers 0802, Centre for Economic Reform and Transformation, Heriot Watt University.
  • Handle: RePEc:hwe:certdp:0802

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. World Bank, 2013. "Oil Rules : Kazakhstan's Policy Options in a Downturn," World Bank Other Operational Studies 16721, The World Bank.
    2. Howie, Peter & Atakhanova, Zauresh, 2014. "Resource boom and inequality: Kazakhstan as a case study," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 71-79.
    3. Kyle, Steven C., 2014. "Mineral Revenues and Countercyclical Macroeconomic Policy in Kazakhstan," Working Papers 180170, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.

    More about this item


    social accounting matrix; income distribution; Kazakhstan; transition economies; input-output tables; household surveys;

    JEL classification:

    • C67 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Input-Output Models
    • C81 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs - - - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data; Data Access
    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hwe:certdp:0802. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Colin Miller). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.