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Widening Inequality Combined with Modest Growth


  • Friedman, Benjamin Morton


The author argues that inequality, combined with only modest growth, can have grave moral consequences. History suggests that, in the past, a rising standard of living has promoted tolerance for others, commitment to economic opportunity, and democracy. But stagnating incomes due to inequality can lead to the opposite outcomes. The nation’s response to immigration is a good example, says the author.

Suggested Citation

  • Friedman, Benjamin Morton, 2009. "Widening Inequality Combined with Modest Growth," Scholarly Articles 4554326, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hrv:faseco:4554326

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. F. A. Lutz, 1940. "The Structure of Interest Rates," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 55(1), pages 36-63.
    2. Ofer, Aharon R & Taggart, Robert A, Jr, 1977. "Bond Refunding: A Clarifying Analysis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(1), pages 21-30, March.
    3. Elton, Edwin J & Gruber, Martin J, 1972. "The Economic Value of the Call Option," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 27(4), pages 891-901, September.
    4. Merton, Robert C, 1974. "On the Pricing of Corporate Debt: The Risk Structure of Interest Rates," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 29(2), pages 449-470, May.
    5. Modigliani, Franco & Shiller, Robert J, 1973. "Inflation, Rational Expectations and the Term Structure of Interest Rates," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 40(157), pages 12-43, February.
    6. Frank C. Jen & James E. Wert, 1967. "The Effect Of Call Risk On Corporate Bond Yields," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 22(4), pages 637-651, December.
    7. Kraus, Alan, 1973. "The Bond Refunding Decision in an Efficient Market," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(05), pages 793-806, December.
    8. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-654, May-June.
    9. Fair, Ray C & Malkiel, Burton G, 1971. "The Determination of Yield Differentials between Debt Instruments of the Same Maturity," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 3(4), pages 733-749, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Mukesh Sud & Craig VanSandt, 2011. "Of Fair Markets and Distributive Justice," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 99(1), pages 131-142, February.

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