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Long-term Trends in Gross Domestic Expenditure in Indonesia: Provisional Estimates


  • van der Eng, Pierre


This paper seeks to overcome the fact that historical estimates of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for Indonesia are currently only available in constant prices. Using the expenditure approach it offers new estimates of Gross Domestic Expenditure (GDE), the equivalent of GDP, in current prices. The paper anchors the estimates on Indonesia’s Input-Output (I-O) Tables available for benchmark years between 1969 and 2010, which reveal that until 1995 Indonesia’s official national accounts underestimated GDP and GDE. The paper combines corrections based on the I-O Tables with additional sources to present provisional new estimates of GDE in current prices for 1870-1941 and 1948-1995. It then analyses the composition of GDE, noting the generally modest proportions of discretionary public expenditure and capital formation, particularly during 1870-1913 and 1948-1966.

Suggested Citation

  • van der Eng, Pierre, 2019. "Long-term Trends in Gross Domestic Expenditure in Indonesia: Provisional Estimates," CEI Working Paper Series 2018-19, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  • Handle: RePEc:hit:hitcei:2018-19
    Note: This version: 6 March 2019

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Pierre van der Eng, 2014. "The Institution of Macroeconomic Measurement in Indonesia Before the 1980s," CEH Discussion Papers 024, Centre for Economic History, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
    2. van der Eng, Pierre, 1998. "Exploring Exploitation: The Netherlands and Colonial Indonesia 1870–1940," Revista de Historia Económica, Cambridge University Press, vol. 16(01), pages 291-321, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. BASSINO, Jean-Pascal & van der ENG, Pierre, 2016. "Asia's 'Little Divergence' in the 20th Century: Evidence from PPP-based direct estimates of GDP per capita, 1913-1969," Discussion paper series HIAS-E-28, Hitotsubashi Institute for Advanced Study, Hitotsubashi University.

    More about this item


    GDP; Indonesia; expenditure; economic growth;

    JEL classification:

    • E01 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General - - - Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth; Environmental Accounts
    • N15 - Economic History - - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations - - - Asia including Middle East
    • O47 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Empirical Studies of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity; Cross-Country Output Convergence

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