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Estimating Peer Effects in Swedish High School using School, Teacher, and Student Fixed Effects


  • Sund, Krister

    () (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University)


In this paper I use a rich dataset in order to observe each student over time in different subjects and courses. Unlike most peer studies, I identify the peers and the teachers that each student has had in every classroom. This enables me to handle the simultaneity and selection problems, which are inherent in estimating peer effects in the educational production function. I use a value-added approach with lagged peer achievement to avoid simultaneity and extensive fixed effects to rule out selection. To be specific, it is within-student across-subject variation with additional controls for time-invariant teacher characteristics that is exploited. Moreover, I identify students that are attending classes in which they have no peers from earlier education which otherwise could bias the result. I find positive peer effects for the average student but also that there is a non-linear dimension. Lower-achieving students benefit more from an increase in both mean peer achievement and the spread in peer achievement within the classroom than their higher-achieving peers.

Suggested Citation

  • Sund, Krister, 2007. "Estimating Peer Effects in Swedish High School using School, Teacher, and Student Fixed Effects," Working Paper Series 8/2007, Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:sofiwp:2007_008

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jan Selén & Ann-Charlotte Ståhlberg, 1998. "Pension Rights and Wages," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 12(1), pages 191-209, March.
    2. Per-Anders Edin & Bertil Holmlund, 1995. "The Swedish Wage Structure: The Rise and Fall of Solidarity Wage Policy?," NBER Chapters,in: Differences and Changes in Wage Structures, pages 307-344 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Barr, Nicholas, 1992. "Economic Theory and the Welfare State: A Survey and Interpretation," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(2), pages 741-803, June.
    4. Barr, Nicholas, 1992. "Economic theory and the welfare state : a survey and interpretation," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 279, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    5. Richardson, Katarina, 2000. "The evolution of the marriage premium in the Swedish labor market 1968-1991," Working Paper Series 2000:5, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
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    Cited by:

    1. Böhlmark, Anders & Lindahl, Mikael, 2007. "The Impact of School Choice on Pupil Achievement, Segregation and Costs: Swedish Evidence," IZA Discussion Papers 2786, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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    Economics of education; Peer effects;

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