IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Costs of traffic accidents with wild boar populations in Sweden


  • Häggmark Svensson, Tobias

    () (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)

  • Gren, Ing-Marie

    () (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)

  • Andersson, Hans

    () (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)

  • Jansson, Gunnar

    () (Grimsö Wildlife Research Station)

  • Jägerbrand, Annika

    () (Environmental Unit, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute)


Traffic accidents with wild boar have increased rapidly over the last years in Sweden. This paper calculates and predicts costs of current and future accidents, totally and for different Swedish counties, based on estimates of wild boar populations. A logistic population model is assumed, and econometric methods are used for calculating populations with panel data on traffic accidents, traffic load, hunting pressure, and landscape characteristics for each county. The results show an annual average growth rate of 0.48, which varies between 0.39 and 0.52 for different counties. This, together with predictions on changes in traffic load, forms the basis for calculations of costs of traffic accidents for a 10 year period. In total, the predicted costs can increase from 60 million SEK in 2011 to 135 or 340 million SEK in 2021 in present value depending on assumed hunting pressure. The variation is, however, large among counties; costs can increase by ten times in Stockholm and Södermanland where the wild boar populations are relatively small and by 50% in counties with mature populations.

Suggested Citation

  • Häggmark Svensson, Tobias & Gren, Ing-Marie & Andersson, Hans & Jansson, Gunnar & Jägerbrand, Annika, 2014. "Costs of traffic accidents with wild boar populations in Sweden," Working Paper Series 2014:5, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:slueko:2014_005

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Mark Aguiar & Manuel Amador, 2011. "Growth in the Shadow of Expropriation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 126(2), pages 651-697.
    2. Di Corato, Luca, 2012. "Optimal conservation policy under imperfect intergenerational altruism," Journal of Forest Economics, Elsevier, pages 194-206.
    3. Barbosa, Diogo & Carvalho, Vitor M. & Pereira, Paulo J., 2016. "Public stimulus for private investment: An extended real options model," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 52(PB), pages 742-748.
    4. Sarkar, Sudipto, 2012. "Attracting private investment: Tax reduction, investment subsidy, or both?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 1780-1785.
    5. Christopher Harris & David Laibson, 2013. "Instantaneous Gratification," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 128(1), pages 205-248.
    6. E. S. Phelps & R. A. Pollak, 1968. "On Second-Best National Saving and Game-Equilibrium Growth," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 35(2), pages 185-199.
    7. Pennings, Enrico, 2005. "How to maximize domestic benefits from foreign investments: the effect of irreversibility and uncertainty," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 873-889, May.
    8. Avinash K. Dixit & Robert S. Pindyck, 1994. "Investment under Uncertainty," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, number 5474, June.
    9. Pennings, Enrico, 2000. "Taxes and stimuli of investment under uncertainty," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 383-391, February.
    10. Cesare Dosi & Michele Moretto, 1997. "Pollution Accumulation and Firm Incentives to Accelerate Technological Change Under Uncertain Private Benefits," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, pages 285-300.
    11. Yishay D. Maoz, 2011. "Tax, Stimuli Of Investment And Firm Value," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(1), pages 171-174, February.
    12. Yu, Chia-Feng & Chang, Ta-Cheng & Fan, Chinn-Ping, 2007. "FDI timing: Entry cost subsidy versus tax rate reduction," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 262-271, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Ing-Marie Gren & Tobias Häggmark-Svensson & Hans Andersson & Gunnar Jansson & Annika Jägerbrand, 2016. "Using traffic data to estimate wildlife populations," Journal of Bioeconomics, Springer, pages 17-31.
    2. Häggmark-Svensson, Tobias & Elofsson, Katarina & Engelmann, Marc & Gren, Ing-Marie, 2015. "A review of the literature on benefits, costs, and policies for wildlife management," Working Paper Series 2015:1, Department Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.

    More about this item


    traffic accidents; costs; wild boar; econometrics; land scape characteristics; Sweden.;

    JEL classification:

    • Q29 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Other
    • Q57 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Ecological Economics

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hhs:slueko:2014_005. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Elizabeth Hillerius). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.