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Pricing-to-Market in Swedish Exports


  • Alexius, Annika

    (Central Bank of Sweden)

  • Vredin, Anders

    () (Department of Economics)


In this paper fluctuations in prices of Swedish exports to five countries are investigated in order to test whether there are systematic differences between prices to different markets and whether relative export prices are systematically affected by macroeconomic conditions in destination countries. Simple correlations suggest that relative export prices are related to real exchange rates, but also to nominal exchange rates. Formal tests, based on an error-correction model, indicate that the deviations from no pricing-to-market and neutrality of money are quite common and persistent. Over a sample of 15 years, long run monetary neutrality is rejected in almost half of the cases. In most cases, the degree of pricing-to-market is also affected by aggregate demand (unemployment) in export markets.

Suggested Citation

  • Alexius, Annika & Vredin, Anders, 1996. "Pricing-to-Market in Swedish Exports," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 146, Stockholm School of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:hastef:0146

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Schattler Heinz & Sung Jaeyoung, 1993. "The First-Order Approach to the Continuous-Time Principal-Agent Problem with Exponential Utility," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 331-371, December.
    2. Holmstrom, Bengt & Milgrom, Paul, 1987. "Aggregation and Linearity in the Provision of Intertemporal Incentives," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 303-328, March.
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    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Adolfson, Malin, 1999. "Swedish Export Price Determination: Pricing to Market Shares?," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 306, Stockholm School of Economics.
    2. Leitemo, Kai & Soderstrom, Ulf, 2005. "Simple monetary policy rules and exchange rate uncertainty," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 481-507, April.
    3. Adolfson, Malin, 2001. "Monetary Policy with Incomplete Exchange Rate Pass-Through," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 476, Stockholm School of Economics.
    4. Alessio Emanuele BIONDO, 2010. "The Law of One Price: Survey of a Failure," Theoretical and Practical Research in Economic Fields, ASERS Publishing, vol. 0(2), pages 168-182, December.
    5. Mallick, Sushanta & Marques, Helena, 2012. "Pricing to market with trade liberalization: The role of market heterogeneity and product differentiation in India’s exports," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 310-336.
    6. Adolfson, Malin, 2001. "Export price responses to exogenous exchange rate movements," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 91-96, April.
    7. Friberg, Richard, 1997. "Should the core fear the outs? Price setting practices and international monetary transmission," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 203, Stockholm School of Economics.
    8. Bowe, Michael & Saltvedt, Thina M., 2004. "Currency invoicing practices, exchange rate volatility and pricing-to-market: evidence from product level data," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 281-308, June.
    9. Gottfries, Nils, 2002. "Market Shares, Financial Constraints and Pricing Behaviour in the Export Market," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 69(276), pages 583-607, November.
    10. Tantirigama, Mangalika & Lee, Minsoo & Sanyal, Amal, 2008. "New Zealand's Pastoral Exports: Can Small Countries Practise Pricing-to-Market?," Review of Applied Economics, Review of Applied Economics, vol. 4(1-2).
    11. Anderton, Robert, 2003. "Extra-euro area manufacturing import prices and exchange rate pass-through," Working Paper Series 219, European Central Bank.

    More about this item


    export prices; exchange rates; pricing-to-market; neutrality of money; exchange-rate pass-through;

    JEL classification:

    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics


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