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Are Real Wages and Unemployment Related?


  • Jacobson, Tor


  • Vredin, Anders

    () (Dept. of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics)

  • Warne, Anders


In this paper we propose an alternative method for investigating the sources behind the behavior of real wages and unemployment. The statistical model we study is a certain structural error correction model, a so called common trends model, which has become popular in the empirical growth/business cycle literature. The system consists of real output, employment, unemployment and the product real wage and two exogenous stochastic variables, a tax wedge and a currency basket index. Based on quarterly Swedish data (1965-90) we find evidence supporting a short run but not a medium or long run relation.

Suggested Citation

  • Jacobson, Tor & Vredin, Anders & Warne, Anders, 1994. "Are Real Wages and Unemployment Related?," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 8, Stockholm School of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:hastef:0008

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    3. Creedy, John, 1977. "The Distribution of Lifetime Earnings," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 29(3), pages 412-429, November.
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    9. Creedy, John, 1980. "The New Government Pension Scheme: A Simulation Analysis," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 42(1), pages 51-64, February.
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    11. Jacob Mincer, 1958. "Investment in Human Capital and Personal Income Distribution," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66, pages 281-281.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kelvin Balcombe & Richard Tiffin, 2002. "Bootstrap testing of the expectations hypothesis with the term structure of interest rates," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(9), pages 563-566.
    2. Johansen, Soren, 2002. "A small sample correction for tests of hypotheses on the cointegrating vectors," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 111(2), pages 195-221, December.
    3. Hualde, J. & Robinson, P.M., 2010. "Semiparametric inference in multivariate fractionally cointegrated systems," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 157(2), pages 492-511, August.
    4. Matteo Iacoviello, 2002. "House Prices and Business Cycles in Europe: a VAR Analysis," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 540, Boston College Department of Economics.
    5. Alain W. HECQ, 2005. "Common Trends and Common Cycles in Latin America: A 2-step vs an Iterative Approach," Computing in Economics and Finance 2005 258, Society for Computational Economics.
    6. Tor Jacobson & Per Jansson & Anders Vredin & Anders Warne, 2001. "Monetary policy analysis and inflation targeting in a small open economy: a VAR approach," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(4), pages 487-520.
    7. Juha Kilponen & David Mayes & Jouko Vilmunen, 1999. "Labour Market Flexibility in Northern Europe," One Europe or Several? Working Papers 2, One-Europe Programme.
    8. Bruggeman, Annick & Donati, Paola & Warne, Anders, 2003. "Is the demand for euro area M3 stable?," Working Paper Series 255, European Central Bank.
    9. Castle, Jennifer L. & Hendry, David F., 2009. "The long-run determinants of UK wages, 1860-2004," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 5-28, March.
    10. Centoni, Marco & Cubadda, Gianluca & Hecq, Alain, 2007. "Common shocks, common dynamics, and the international business cycle," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 149-166, January.
    11. Bukowski, Maciej & Koloch, Grzegorz & Lewandowski, Piotr, 2008. "Shocks and rigidities as determinants of CEE labor markets' performance. A panel SVECM approach," MPRA Paper 12429, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Tor Jacobson & Johan Lyhagen & Rolf Larsson & Marianne Nessén, 2008. "Inflation, exchange rates and PPP in a multivariate panel cointegration model," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 11(1), pages 58-79, March.
    13. Hjelm, Göran, 2001. "The Dynamic Response of the Budget Balance to Tax, Spending and Output Shocks: Does Model Specification Matter?," Working Papers 2001:2, Lund University, Department of Economics.
    14. Jacobson, Tor & Jansson, Per & Vredin, Anders & Warne, Anders, 2002. "Identifying the Effects of Monetary Policy Shocks in an Open Economy," Working Paper Series 134, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
    15. Mayes, David G. & Vilmunen, Jouko, 1999. "Unemployment in a small open economy : Finland and New Zealand," Research Discussion Papers 10/1999, Bank of Finland.
    16. Pascalau, Razvan, 2007. "Productivity Shocks, Unemployment Persistence, and the Adjustment of Real Wages in OECD Countries," MPRA Paper 7222, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Ralf Brüggemann, 2006. "Sources of German unemployment: a structural vector error correction analysis," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 409-431, June.
    18. Maciej Bukowski & Grzegorz Koloch & Piotr Lewandowski, 2008. "Shocks and rigidities as determinants of the CEE labor markets’ performance - a panel SVECM approach -," IBS Working Papers 2/2008, Instytut Badan Strukturalnych.
    19. Laura Gérard-Prenveille, 2003. "Déterminants du taux de chômage d’équilibre et ajustements sur le marché du travail : une analyse sur données françaises," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 159(3), pages 17-37.
    20. Jacobson, Tor & Vredin, Anders & Warne, Anders, 1997. "Common trends and hysteresis in Scandinavian unemployment," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(9), pages 1781-1816, December.
    21. Jacobson, Tor & Jansson, Per & Vredin, Anders & Warne, Anders, 1999. "A VAR Model for Monetary Policy Analysis in a Small Open Economy," Working Paper Series 77, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
    22. Heino Nielsen & Christopher Bowdler, 2006. "Inflation adjustment in the open economy: an I(2) analysis of UK prices," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 569-586, September.
    23. Rakesh Bissoondeeal & Michail Karoglou & Andy Mullineux, 2014. "Breaks in the UK Household Sector Money Demand Function," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 82, pages 47-68, December.
    24. Ho, Mun S & Sorensen, Bent E, 1996. "Finding Cointegration Rank in High Dimensional Systems Using the Johansen Test: An Illustration Using Data Based Monte Carlo Simulations," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(4), pages 726-732, November.

    More about this item


    Common trends; error correction; supply and demand shocks;

    JEL classification:

    • C15 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Statistical Simulation Methods: General
    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • C52 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity


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