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Comment expliquer les disparités économiques dans l'UEM ?

Listed author(s):
  • Catherine Mathieu

    ()

    (OFCE - OFCE - Sciences Po)

  • Henri Sterdyniak

    ()

    (OFCE - OFCE - Sciences Po)

Depuis le lancement de l'euro, les économies de la zone euro ont connu des disparités persistantes et souvent croissantes. Ces disparités sont sources de tensions en Europe ; elles rendent difficile la mise en oeuvre de politiques économiques communes, tant structurelles que conjoncturelles. L'article présente un panorama des divergences en termes de croissance et d'inflation et de la persistance de certains déséquilibres (chômage, déficit extérieur). Quatre explications sont présentées et discutées : les avantages donnés par la monnaie unique aux pays en rattrapage ; les défauts de l'organisation de la politique économique dans la zone euro ; le caractère non coopératif des politiques économiques nationales qui aurait entraîné trop de compétition et pas assez de coordination et aurait particulièrement nui aux pays les plus grands ; enfin la crise du modèle continental face à la mondialisation. Quatre stratégies sont discutées : la flexibilisation des marchés ; la marche vers l'économie de la connaissance préconisée par l'Agenda de Lisbonne ; la renationalisation des politiques économiques ou une nouvelle organisation de la politique économique européenne plus orientée vers la croissance.

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File URL: https://hal-sciencespo.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01021366/document
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Paper provided by HAL in its series Post-Print with number hal-01021366.

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Date of creation: 2007
Publication status: Published in Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences Po, 2007, pp.315-352
Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:hal-01021366
Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://hal-sciencespo.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01021366
Contact details of provider: Web page: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/

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  1. Catherine Mathieu & Henri Sterdyniak, 2003. "Réformer le pacte de stabilité : l'état du débat," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 84(1), pages 145-179.
  2. Gilles Saint-Paul, 2004. "Why are European Countries Diverging in their Unemployment Experience?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(4), pages 49-68, Fall.
  3. Romain Duval & Jørgen Elmeskov, 2005. "The Effects of EMU on Structural Reforms in Labour and Product Markets," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 438, OECD Publishing.
  4. Perotti, Roberto & Alesina, Alberto, 2004. "The European Union: A Politically Incorrect View," Scholarly Articles 4553004, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  5. Alberto Alesina & Roberto Perotti, 2004. "The European Union: A Politically Incorrect View," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(4), pages 27-48, Fall.
  6. Alan Ahearne & Jean Pisani-Ferry, 2006. "The Euro: only for the agile," Policy Briefs 42, Bruegel.
  7. André Sapir, 2006. "Globalization and the Reform of European Social Models," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(2), pages 369-390, 06.
  8. Lane, Philip R., 2006. "The Real Effects of EMU," CEPR Discussion Papers 5536, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  9. Nicholai Benalal & Juan Luis Diaz del Hoyo & Beatrice Pierluigi & Nikiforos Vidalis, 2006. "Output growth differentials across the euro area countries - some stylised facts," Occasional Paper Series 45, European Central Bank.
  10. Servaas Deroose & Sven Langedijk & Werner Roeger, 2004. "Reviewing adjustment dynamics in EMU: from overheating to overcooling," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 198, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
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