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An Assessment of Environmentally-Related Non-Tariff Measures

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  • Lionel Fontagné

    () (CEPII - Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales - Centre d'analyse stratégique, TEAM - Théories et Applications en Microéconomie et Macroéconomie - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • Friedrich von Kirchbach

    (ITC (UNCTAD-WTO) - International Trade Center - WTO - UNCTAD)

  • Mondher Mimouni

    (ITC (UNCTAD-WTO) - International Trade Center - WTO - UNCTAD)

Abstract

International trade can affect the environment in different ways. This may justify the introduction of border measures by the importing countries. In addition to various dispositions in the GATT, GATS, TRIPs agreements, as well as in the Agreement on Agriculture, this issue is regulated by the agreements on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and on the application of Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary standards (SPS). Despite these rules, abuse of environmental arguments for protectionist reasons remains an open issue. In order to disentangle protectionism from dispositions justified on the grounds of true environmental concerns, we systematically review notifications of SPS and TBTs by importing countries at the tariff line level. Trade is considered as being potentially affected when an environmental SPS/TBT is notified on grounds of environmental concerns. Affected trade is defined as imports by countries notifying such barriers. Protectionist use of environmental barriers is likely when only a limited number of countries impose an environmental obstacle on the imports of a given product. Considering data for 2001, we find that 88 per cent of the value of world trade is in products potentially affected by such measures, while 39 per cent of the value of world imports is potentially subject to a protectionist use of such measures. Agriculture, the automobile industry, the pharmaceutical industry and many other sectors are concerned.

Suggested Citation

  • Lionel Fontagné & Friedrich von Kirchbach & Mondher Mimouni, 2005. "An Assessment of Environmentally-Related Non-Tariff Measures," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-00270512, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:cesptp:hal-00270512
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00270512
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    1. J.-C. Bureau & E. Gozlan & S. Marette, 1999. "Quality signaling and international trade in food products," THEMA Working Papers 99-13, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
    2. Maskus, Keith E. & Wilson, John S. & Tsunehiro Otsuki, 2000. "Quantifying the impact of technical barriers to trade : a framework for analysis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2512, The World Bank.
    3. Jaffee, Steven & Henson, Spencer, 2004. "Standards and agro-food exports from developing countries: rebalancing the debate," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3348, The World Bank.
    4. Henson, Spencer & Mitullah Winnie, 2004. "Kenyan exports of Nile perch : the impact of food safety standards on an export-oriented supply chain," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3349, The World Bank.
    5. Wilson, John S. & Otsuki, Tsunehiro, 2001. "Global trade and food safety - winners and losers in a fragmented system," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2689, The World Bank.
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    Cited by:

    1. Fontagné, Lionel & Orefice, Gianluca, 2018. "Let’s try next door: Technical Barriers to Trade and multi-destination firms," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 643-663.
    2. Fontagné, Lionel & Orefice, Gianluca & Piermartini, Roberta & Rocha, Nadia, 2015. "Product standards and margins of trade: Firm-level evidence," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 29-44.
    3. Witold Czubala & Ben Shepherd & John S. Wilson, 2009. "Help or Hindrance? The Impact of Harmonised Standards on African Exports †," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 18(5), pages 711-744, November.
    4. Lionel Fontagné & Gianluca Orefice & Roberta Piermartini & Nadia Rocha, 2015. "Product Standards and Margins of Trade: Firm-Level Evidence Product Standards and Margins of Trade: Firm-Level Evidence," PSE - Labex "OSE-Ouvrir la Science Economique" hal-01299757, HAL.
    5. Hoda El-Enbaby & Rana Hendy & Chahir Zaki, 2014. "Do Product Standards Matter for Margins of Trade In Egypt? Evidence from Firm-Level Data," Working Papers 840, Economic Research Forum, revised Jun 2014.
    6. Shepherd, Ben, 2015. "Product Standards and Export Diversification," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 30(2), pages 300-333.

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