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Apego al terruño: La geografía espacial de los mercados laborales de docentes

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Abstract

En los países en desarrollo, la distribución desigual de la calidad de los docentes es un problema que subyace a la distribución desigual de los logros educativos. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre cómo el mercado laboral genera este tipo de distribución. Para contribuir a este tipo de conocimiento, este estudio investiga si existe un mercado nacional de docentes en el Perú o, más bien, mercados regionales de menor alcance. En base a modelos multinomiales de elección discreta —estimados con datos de encuestas en las regiones de Loreto y Lambayeque—, se identifican las variables asociadas a la ubicación del primer empleo de los docentes, que incluyen factores geográficos y características de los maestros y del marco institucional. Los resultados revelan que los mercados de docentes son de alcance regional: haber nacido en una provincia determinada aumenta significativamente la probabilidad de conseguir el primer empleo como docente en esa misma provincia. También se encuentra evidencia de que la movilidad geográfica de los docentes es bastante limitada. Estos hallazgos sugieren que las políticas para fortalecer los sistemas de formación docente y reducir las inequidades deben centrarse en el nivel regional.

Suggested Citation

  • Jaramillo, Miguel, 2013. "Apego al terruño: La geografía espacial de los mercados laborales de docentes," Documentos de Investigación dt68, Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo (GRADE).
  • Handle: RePEc:gad:doctra:dt68 Note: Documento de investigación, 68
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    5. Céspedes, Nikita, 2006. "Efectos del salario mínimo en el mercado laboral peruano," Revista Estudios Económicos, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú, issue 13.
    6. Del Valle, Marielle, 2009. "Impacto del ajuste de la Remuneración Mínima Vital sobre el empleo y la informalidad," Revista Estudios Económicos, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú, issue 16, pages 83-102.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Movilidad profesional; Mercado de trabajo; Docentes; Loreto; Lambayeque; Occupational mobility; Labour market; Teachers; Peru;

    JEL classification:

    • J44 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Professional Labor Markets and Occupations
    • J45 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Public Sector Labor Markets

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