IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

International dimension of European Monetary Union: implications for the dollar


  • Karen H. Johnson


This paper attempts to review the different elements of the international role of the dollar and, where possible, to provide quantitative information about the current scale of dollar use and how it may be changing, including in response to European monetary union. The paper considers the exchange value of the dollar, the dollar as reserve asset, the dollar as vehicle currency, and the macroeconomic implications for the United States of the fiscal actions likely to be required for the participating EU countries to meet the fiscal convergence criteria specified in the Maastricht Treaty. The paper finds that if Federal Reserve policy continues to contribute to confidence in the long-term value of the dollar and the process of change remains gradual, then European monetary union does not pose serious negative consequences for the international role of the dollar.

Suggested Citation

  • Karen H. Johnson, 1994. "International dimension of European Monetary Union: implications for the dollar," International Finance Discussion Papers 469, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgif:469

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Fred G M C Nieuwland & Willem F C Verschoor & Christian C P Wolff, 1990. "EMS Exchange Rates," CEPR Financial Markets Paper 0002, European Science Foundation Network in Financial Markets, c/o C.E.P.R, 77 Bastwick Street, London EC1V 3PZ..
    2. Diebold, Francis X & Husted, Steven & Rush, Mark, 1991. "Real Exchange Rates under the Gold Standard," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(6), pages 1252-1271, December.
    3. W. R. M. Perraudin & E. H. Gardner, 1992. "Asymmetry in the ERM; A Case Study of French and German Interest Rates Since Basle-Nyborg," IMF Working Papers 92/96, International Monetary Fund.
    4. Edison, Hali J. & Gagnon, Joseph E. & Melick, William R., 1997. "Understanding the empirical literature on purchasing power parity: the post-Bretton Woods era," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 1-17, February.
    5. Mizrach, Bruce, 1995. "Target zone models with stochastic realignments: an econometric evaluation," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 641-657, October.
    6. Kremers, Jeroen J M & Ericsson, Neil R & Dolado, Juan J, 1992. "The Power of Cointegration Tests," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(3), pages 325-348, August.
    7. Edison, Hali J. & Fisher, Eric O'N, 1991. "A long-run view of the European monetary system," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 53-70, March.
    8. Giuseppe Bertola & Lars E. O. Svensson, 1993. "Stochastic Devaluation Risk and the Empirical Fit of Target-Zone Models," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(3), pages 689-712.
    9. Francesco Giavazzi & Marco Pagano, 1991. "The Advantage of Tying One's Hands: EMS Discipline and Central Bank Credibility," NBER Chapters,in: International Volatility and Economic Growth: The First Ten Years of The International Seminar on Macroeconomics, pages 303-330 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Michael J. Artis & Mark P. Taylor, 1993. "The Stabilizing Effect of the ERMon Exchange Rates and Interest Rates; An Empirical Investigation," IMF Working Papers 93/67, International Monetary Fund.
    11. Svensson, Lars E. O., 1992. "The foreign exchange risk premium in a target zone with devaluation risk," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1-2), pages 21-40, August.
    12. Lindberg, Hans & Soderlind, Paul & Svensson, Lars E O, 1993. "Devaluation Expectations: The Swedish Krona 1985-92," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 103(420), pages 1170-1179, September.
    13. Zhaohui Chen & Alberto Giovannini, 1993. "The Determinants of Realignment Expectations Under the EMS: Some Empirical Regularities," NBER Working Papers 4291, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Chen, Zhaohui & Giovannini, Alberto, 1993. "The Determinants of Realignment Expectations Under the EMS - Some Empirical Regularities," CEPR Discussion Papers 790, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    15. Rose, A.K. & Svensson, L.E., 1991. "Expected and Predicted Realignments: the FF/DM Exchange Rate during the EMS," Papers 485, Stockholm - International Economic Studies.
    16. Giavazzi, Francesco & Spaventa, Luigi, 1990. "The `New' EMS," CEPR Discussion Papers 369, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    17. Katsimbris, George M & Miller, Stephen M, 1993. "Interest Rate Linkages within the European Monetary System: Further Analysis," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 25(4), pages 771-779, November.
    18. von Hagen, Jurgen & Neumann, Manfred J M, 1994. "Real Exchange Rates within and between Currency Areas: How Far Away Is EMU?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 76(2), pages 236-244, May.
    19. Jeff Frankel, Steve Phillips, and Menzie Chinn., 1992. "Financial and Currency Integration in the European Monetary System: The Statistical Record," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C92-005, University of California at Berkeley.
    20. Hagen, Jurgen von & Fratianni, Michele, 1990. "German dominance in the EMS: evidence from interest rates," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 358-375, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Patricia S. Pollard, 1997. "The role of the euro as an international currency," Working Papers 1997-021, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    2. Pavel Trunin & Sergey Narkevich, 2013. "Prospects for the Russian Ruble to Become Regional Reserve Currency," Working Papers 118, Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy, revised 2015.
    3. Melnik, Arie & Nissim, Doron, 2006. "Issue costs in the Eurobond market: The effects of market integration," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 157-177, January.
    4. Arie Melnik & Doron Nissim, 2004. "Liquidity and Issue Costs in the Eurobond Market: the Effects of Market Integration," ICER Working Papers 03-2004, ICER - International Centre for Economic Research.
    5. Robert McCauley, 1999. "The Euro and the Dollar, 1998," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 91-133, February.
    6. Patricia S. Pollard, 2001. "The creation of the Euro and the role of the dollar in international markets," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue May, pages 17-36.
    7. Narkevich, Siarhei & Trunin, Pavel, 2013. "Prospects for the Russian Ruble as a Regional Reserve Currency," Published Papers dok2, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration.
    8. Sergey Narkevich & Pavel Trunin, 2012. "Reserve Currencies: Factors of Evolution and their Role in the World Economy," Research Paper Series, Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy, issue 162P.
    9. Uctum, Merih & Deusy-Fournier, Pierre, 1998. "Le dollar et l’euro : la primauté monétaire de l’Europe a-t-elle une place?," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 74(4), pages 669-694, décembre.
    10. Arie Melnik & Doron Nissim, 2004. "Liquidity and Issue Costs in Eurobond Market: The Effects of Market Integration," Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference 2004 48, Money Macro and Finance Research Group.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedgif:469. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Franz Osorio). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.