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Is Productivity in the Service Industries Low? An Analysis Using Firm-level Data on the Dispersion and the Dynamics of Productivity (Japanese)


  • MORIKAWA Masayuki


In this paper, by using firm-level panel data from the Basic Survey of Japanese Business Structure and Activities over the four years from 2001-2004, I first analyze the dispersion of productivity among Japanese companies. Then I decompose the productivity growth by industry to analyze the contributions of company turnover and reallocation to industry-level productivity. The focus of this paper is to compare the structure of productivity between service industries and the manufacturing industry. According to the results of the analysis, the total factor productivity (TFP) level in service industries cannot be said to be lower than that of the manufacturing industry. In the service sector, there are numerous companies with high levels of productivity. In addition, the TFP growth rate in companies belonging to the service sector is by no means inferior to that of manufacturing companies. The majority of service companies shows a higher TFP growth rate than the median manufacturing company. Nevertheless, because productivity growth rates of large-scale companies in the service sector are low, the aggregate TFP growth rate is lowered significantly when companies are weighted by their size. Productivity dispersion between firms in service industries is larger than in the manufacturing industry. Most of the dispersion (log variance) of productivity level and growth rate among companies is intra-industry rather than inter-industry. The large dispersion of productivity between companies in the service sector is not attributable to the variety of types of businesses in the sector. Both service industries and the retail industry have a remarkably smaller "within effect" (productivity growth that keeps each continuing company's market share constant) than the manufacturing industry and the wholesale industry. Also, in the service industry "entry effect" and "redistribution effect" between companies make negative contributions to increases in productivity, and in this respect it differs from manufacturing and other industries. That is to say, in the service sector the market shares of companies with relatively low productivity are increasing. The above findings mean that there is substantial potential to raise the productivity of service industries as a whole. At the same time, the fact that the mechanism, whereby more productive companies expand their market shares and enhance the productivity of the sector as a whole is not necessarily functioning, suggests that the market selection mechanism in the service industry should be improved.

Suggested Citation

  • MORIKAWA Masayuki, 2007. "Is Productivity in the Service Industries Low? An Analysis Using Firm-level Data on the Dispersion and the Dynamics of Productivity (Japanese)," Discussion Papers (Japanese) 07048, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
  • Handle: RePEc:eti:rdpsjp:07048

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1992. " Liquidation Values and Debt Capacity: A Market Equilibrium Approach," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1343-1366, September.
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    3. Harford, Jarrad, 2005. "What drives merger waves?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(3), pages 529-560, September.
    4. Clarke, Roger & Ioannidis, Christos, 1996. "On the relationship between aggregate merger activity and the stock market: some further empirical evidence," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 349-356, December.
    5. Boyan Jovanovic & Peter L. Rousseau, 2002. "The Q-Theory of Mergers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(2), pages 198-204, May.
    6. Devra L. Golbe & Lawrence J. White, 1988. "A Time-Series Analysis of Mergers and Acquisitions in the U.S. Economy," NBER Chapters,in: Corporate Takeovers: Causes and Consequences, pages 265-310 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. ITO Keiko, 2011. "Entry of Foreign Multinational Firms and Productivity Growth of Domestic Firms: The case of Japanese firms," Discussion papers 11063, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    2. MORIKAWA Masayuki, 2008. "What Do Japanese Unions Do for Productivity?: An Empirical Analysis Using Firm-Level Data," Discussion papers 08027, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    3. Morikawa, Masayuki, 2012. "Population density and efficiency in energy consumption: An empirical analysis of service establishments," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 1617-1622.
    4. Keiko Ito & Sébastien Lechevalier, 2009. "The evolution of the productivity dispersion of firms: a reevaluation of its determinants in the case of Japan," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 145(3), pages 405-429, October.
    5. KAWAKAMI Atsushi & MIYAGAWA Tsutomu, 2010. "Product Switching and Firm Performance in Japan," Discussion papers 10043, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).

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