IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Role of Universal Service Obligation Fund in Rural Telecom Services: Lessons from the Indian Experience


  • G. Raghuram


  • Rekha Jain



Despite the tremendous growth of mobile services in most developing countries, these have largely remained limited to urban areas. This has further aggravated the existing urban and rural divide. Policy makers and regulators perceive the need for an effective regulatory and policy environment to reduce the gap, as there are several market challenges in this endeavor, including low commercial viability. However, most such interventions have had little success. This paper outlines India.s experience of increasing rural teledensity, including its recent policy initiative to increase penetration through creation of a Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF) that supported a variety of innovative initiatives. [W.P. No. 2009-06-03]

Suggested Citation

  • G. Raghuram & Rekha Jain, 2010. "Role of Universal Service Obligation Fund in Rural Telecom Services: Lessons from the Indian Experience," Working Papers id:2704, eSocialSciences.
  • Handle: RePEc:ess:wpaper:id:2704 Note: Institutional Papers

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Alison Gillwald, 2005. "A Closing Window of Opportunity: Under-Serviced Area Licensing in South Africa," Information Technologies and International Development, MIT Press, vol. 2(4), pages 1-19.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Liu, Chun & Jayakar, Krishna, 2012. "The evolution of telecommunications policy-making: Comparative analysis of China and India," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 13-28.

    More about this item


    Rural Telecom; Universal Access; Universal Service; Universal Service Obligation Fund; Viability Gap Funding; Rural Teledensity;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ess:wpaper:id:2704. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Padma Prakash). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.