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Integrating Distributed Generation: Regulation and Trends in Three Leading Countries

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  • Karim L. Anaya

    (Energy Policy Research Group (EPRG), University of Cambridge)

  • Michael G. Pollitt

    (Energy Policy Research Group (EPRG), University of Cambridge)

Abstract

This paper explores the trends in the deployment and integration of distributed generation in Germany, Denmark and Sweden. The study concentrates on the regulation of renewable energy generation with a focus on grid access and connection mechanisms. The high rate of distributed generation penetration is mainly based on the early support that these countries gave to the expansion of renewable energy generation – mainly wind and solar – within their respective national policies. Germany and Denmark are the ones with the most sophisticated support schemes, which have shown a dynamic design over time. In terms of connections, Germany has the most favorable connection regime which provides not only priority connection but also priority grid access for generation units that produce electricity from renewable energy sources. Sweden guarantees equal treatment among different technologies (i.e. a non-discrimination principle). High connection costs have been observed specially in Germany and Denmark. The costs of network upgrades are usually socialised across demand customers. However, integration issues should be taken into consideration in order to avoid expansion of distributed generation in a way which unnecessarily raises total system costs, via high connection costs.
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Suggested Citation

  • Karim L. Anaya & Michael G. Pollitt, 2014. "Integrating Distributed Generation: Regulation and Trends in Three Leading Countries," Working Papers EPRG 1423, Energy Policy Research Group, Cambridge Judge Business School, University of Cambridge.
  • Handle: RePEc:enp:wpaper:eprg1423
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    18. Soares, N. & Martins, A.G. & Carvalho, A.L. & Caldeira, C. & Du, C. & Castanheira, É. & Rodrigues, E. & Oliveira, G. & Pereira, G.I. & Bastos, J. & Ferreira, J.P. & Ribeiro, L.A. & Figueiredo, N.C. & , 2018. "The challenging paradigm of interrelated energy systems towards a more sustainable future," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 171-193.
    19. Kalkbrenner, Bernhard J. & Yonezawa, Koichi & Roosen, Jutta, 2017. "Consumer preferences for electricity tariffs: Does proximity matter?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 413-424.
    20. Anaya, Karim L. & Pollitt, Michael G., 2017. "Going smarter in the connection of distributed generation," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 608-617.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    distributed generation; renewable energy; support schemes; connection arrangements;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • H25 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Business Taxes and Subsidies
    • L94 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Electric Utilities
    • L98 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Government Policy
    • Q48 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Government Policy

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