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Export Processing Zones in Madagascar : an Endangered Success Story

Listed author(s):
  • Jean-Pierre Cling



  • Mireille Razafindrakoto


    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

  • François Roubaud


    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

(english) The success of export processing zones in Madagascar, or Zone Franche, since 1990 is an isolated case in Africa, apart from Mauritius. This paper explains that Zone Franche has had a very significant macro-economic impact in terms of exports and jobs. Thanks to Zone Franche, before the 2002 crisis Madagascar had become the second largest African exporter of clothing, after Mauritius. The average wages paid in Zone Franche are lower than in the other formal sectors of activity, which is due to the characteristics of the labour employed. On the contrary, social conditions are better. The paper concludes that the future of Zone Franche is threatened by the new multilateral trade framework. _________________________________ (français) Le succès de la Zone Franche d’exportation à Madagascar depuis 1990 constitue un cas unique en Afrique avec celui de l’Ile Maurice. Ce papier montre que la Zone Franche a eu un impact macroéconomique très important en termes d’exportations et d’emplois. Grâce à elle, Madagascar était ainsi devenu le deuxième exportateur africain de produits de l’habillement derrière l’Ile Maurice avant la crise politique de 2002. Les salaires moyens versés dans la Zone Franche sont inférieurs à ceux des autres secteurs formels d’activité. Mais cet écart est dû aux caractéristiques de la main-d’oeuvre employée, sachant que nos estimations ne mettent pas en évidence de différences significatives dans le mode de rémunération salariale entre la Zone Franche et le reste de l’économie. Par ailleurs, les conditions sociales dans la Zone Franche sont meilleures. Nous concluons en montrant que l’avenir de la Zone Franche est menacé par le nouveau cadre commercial multilatéral.

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Paper provided by DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) in its series Working Papers with number DT/2004/02.

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Length: 24 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2004
Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt200402
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