Changing pattern of fertility behaviour in a time of social and economic change: evidence from Mongolia
In 1989, after a long period of socialist rule, Mongolia initiated a democratisation process of its political system together with a transition towards a market economy. This paper examines how changes in socio-economic conditions in Mongolia have affected fertility patterns in recent times. It also provides an outline of changes that have taken place in terms of pro-natalist policies. The study is based on data from the Reproductive Health Survey of Mongolia (RHSM) conducted in 1998. In terms of economic activity we find an inverse, although weak, relationship for older cohorts. This is in strong contrast to the young cohort, for which the economic downturn has had a strongly depressing effect on fertility. We also find important effects of micro level variables, including education and housing. Our findings suggest that the fertility decline observed for the older cohorts are very much part of the first demographic transition, in which the collapse of pro-natalist policies has been influential. (AUTHOR)
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- Hans-Peter Kohler & Iliana Kohler, 2001. "Fertility decline in Russia after 1990: the role of economic uncertainty and labor market crises," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2001-013, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
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