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Patrones de desarrollo en América Latina: ¿convergencia o caída en la trampa del ingreso medio?

Author

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  • Sanguinetti, Pablo
  • Villar, Leonardo

Abstract

América Latina cuenta con el mayor número de países de ingreso medio del mundo, sin embargo, durante la mayor parte del siglo XX las tasas de crecimiento per cápita de los países de la región fueron inferiores a aquellas de los países desarrollados. Este fenómeno es tradicionalmente conocido como la "trampa del ingreso medio". Este documento evalúa si la pérdida del dinamismo del crecimiento es algo esperable a medida que se cierra la brecha del ingreso con las economías industriales. Durante la última década, la mayoría de los países de América Latina ha desempeñado buenas gestiones macroeconómicas acompañadas de iniciativas sociales significativas y de progreso microeconómico sustancial, de condiciones económicas internacionales favorables. Sin embargo, la región todavía necesita atender problemas estructurales importantes: las enormes disparidades sociales, los bajos niveles de ahorro e inversión doméstica, la excesiva concentración de las exportaciones en materias primas y otros commodities de poco valor agregado, y la escasez de competitividad y productividad de las industrias relativa a aquella de otras regiones del mundo. En gran medida, estos cambios estructurales explican por qué América Latina ha perdido relevancia en la economía mundial durante los últimos 40 años.

Suggested Citation

  • Sanguinetti, Pablo & Villar, Leonardo, 2012. "Patrones de desarrollo en América Latina: ¿convergencia o caída en la trampa del ingreso medio?," Research Department working papers 231, CAF Development Bank Of Latinamerica.
  • Handle: RePEc:dbl:dblwop:231
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    Cited by:

    1. Stefano Della Vigna & Ruben Enikolopov & Vera Mironova & Maria Petrova & Ekaterina Zhuravskaya, 2014. "Cross-Border Media and Nationalism: Evidence from Serbian Radio in Croatia," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 6(3), pages 103-132, July.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Sector financiero; Desarrollo; Economía; Investigación socioeconómica;

    JEL classification:

    • E01 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General - - - Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth; Environmental Accounts
    • E20 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • O47 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Empirical Studies of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity; Cross-Country Output Convergence

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