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Liquidity and Bankruptcy with Incomplete Markets: Pure Exchange

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Abstract

We enlarge the standard model of general equilibrium with incomplete market (GEI), to incorporate liquidity constraints as well as the possibility of bankruptcy and default. A new equilibrium results, which we abbreviate GELBI (general equilibrium with liquidity, bankruptcy and incomplete markets). When the supply of bank money and bankruptcy/default penalties are taken sufficiently high (the high regime), GEI occur as GELBI. But outside the high regime many new phenomena appear: money is (almost) never neutral, it has positive value and its optimum quantity is often finite; bankruptcy and default not only occur in equilibrium but can have welfare improving consequences for everyone; there is no real indeterminacy even with financial assets.

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  • John Geanakoplos & Pradeep Dubey, 1989. "Liquidity and Bankruptcy with Incomplete Markets: Pure Exchange," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 900, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  • Handle: RePEc:cwl:cwldpp:900
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    1. Philip Dybvig & Heraklis Polemarchakis, 1981. "Recovering Cardinal Utility," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 48(1), pages 159-166.
    2. Mas-Colell, Andreu, 1977. "The Recoverability of Consumers' Preferences from Market Demand Behavior," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 45(6), pages 1409-1430, September.
    3. David M. G. Newbery & Joseph E. Stiglitz, 1984. "Pareto Inferior Trade," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(1), pages 1-12.
    4. McLennan, Andrew, 1979. "Examples of Von Neumann-Morgenstern utility functions not recoverable from asset demands," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 149-152.
    5. Hart, Oliver D., 1975. "On the optimality of equilibrium when the market structure is incomplete," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 418-443, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. John Geanakoplos, 1989. "An Introduction to General Equilibrium with Incomplete Asset Markets," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 919, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    2. Pascoa, Mario Rui & Araújo, Aloísio Pessoa de & Barbachan, José Santiago Fajardo, 2001. "Endogenous collateral: arbitrage and equilibrium without bounded short sales," FGV/EPGE Economics Working Papers (Ensaios Economicos da EPGE) 418, FGV/EPGE - Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil).
    3. Zame, William R, 1993. "Efficiency and the Role of Default When Security Markets Are Incomplete," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(5), pages 1142-1164, December.
    4. Neumeyer, Pablo Andrés, 1994. "The efficiency of financial markets with high inflation," UC3M Working papers. Economics 2908, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía.
    5. Martin Shubik & D.P. Tsomocos, 1990. "A Strategic Market Game with a Mutual Bank with Fractional Reserves and Redemption in Gold (A Continuum of Traders)," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 964, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    6. Araujo, Aloisio & Fajardo, Jose & Pascoa, Mario R., 2005. "Endogenous collateral," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, pages 439-462.
    7. Pradeep Dubey & John Geanakoplos & Martin Shubik, 1988. "Default and Efficiency in a General Equilibrium Model with Incomplete Markets," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 879R, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, revised Feb 1989.
    8. Orrillo, Jaime, 2001. "Default and exogenous collateral in incomplete markets with a continuum of states," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 151-165, February.
    9. John Geanakoplos & Pradeep Dubey, 1989. "Existence of Walras Equilibrium Without a Price Player of Generalized Game," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 912, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    10. Philip Bond & Robert M. Townsend, 1996. "Formal and informal financing in a Chicago neighborhood," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Jul, pages 3-27.
    11. M. Shubik & D. Tsomocos, 1992. "A strategic market game with a mutual bank with fractional reserves and redemption in gold," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 55(2), pages 123-150, June.
    12. Marko Backovic & Zoran Popovic, 2012. "The Analysis Of Model Of General Economic Equilibrium And Financial Instability Of Economic System," Montenegrin Journal of Economics, Economic Laboratory for Transition Research (ELIT), vol. 8(1), pages 63-85.

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