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The Effect Of Protest Votes On The Estimates Of Willingness To Pay For Use Values Of Recreational Sites


  • Elisabetta Strazzera

    (DRES and Crenos, University of Cagliari, Italy)

  • Margarita Genius

    () (Department of Economics, University of Crete, Greece)

  • Riccardo Scarpa

    (Department of Environment, University of York, U.K.)

  • George Hutchinson

    (Department of Agricultural and Food Economics, Queens University, U.K.)


Contingent Valuation studies are often characterized by a considerable amount of protest responses, which may have an important effect on the final estimates if the protest responses are not randomly distributed across the sample. If the standard procedure of censoring protest responses is adopted, the estimates may be biased. Sample selection models can detect and –if necessary- correct selectivity bias. We apply a sample selection model to data on valuation of forest resources for recreational use, where WTP responses are obtained through a mixed dichotomous choice-open ended elicitation method. Dealing with continuous data for WTP allows us to apply the Heckman 2-steps method, and compare it to the full ML estimator. Either method has its own drawback: computational complexity for the ML method, susceptibility to collinearity problems for the 2-steps method. The latter is observed in our model. The results show that censoring protest responses in this study would lead to overestimates of the willingness to pay.

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  • Elisabetta Strazzera & Margarita Genius & Riccardo Scarpa & George Hutchinson, "undated". "The Effect Of Protest Votes On The Estimates Of Willingness To Pay For Use Values Of Recreational Sites," Working Papers 0106, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:crt:wpaper:0106

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    Cited by:

    1. Giles Atkinson & Sian Morse-Jones & Susana Mourato & Allan Provins, 2012. "‘When to Take “No” for an Answer’? Using Entreaties to Reduce Protests in Contingent Valuation Studies," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 51(4), pages 497-523, April.
    2. Dranco, Daniel & Luiselli, Luca, 2014. "How much do the common goods of rural and semi-natural landscape cost? A case study," MPRA Paper 66309, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2015.
    3. Elisabetta Strazzera & Margarita Genius, 2004. "The Copula Approach to Sample Selection Modelling: An Application to the Recreational Value of Forests," Working Papers 2004.73, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    4. Genius, Margarita & Strazzera, Elisabetta, 2011. "Can unbiased be tighter? Assessment of methods to reduce the bias-variance trade-off in WTP estimation," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 293-314, January.
    5. Daniel Franco & Luca Luiselli, 2013. "A procedure to analyse the strategic outliers and the multiple motivations in a contingent valuation: A case study for a concrete policy purpose," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 40(3), pages 246-266, February.

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    Contingent Valuation; Protest responses; Sample selection; MLE; Two-steps method.;

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