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Currency Substitution


  • Giovannini, Alberto
  • Turtelboom, Bart


This paper reviews the extensive theoretical and empirical literature on currency substitution. After discussing the ambiguity surrounding the definition of currency substitution, the paper illustrates the causes of substitutability of different currencies using a cash-in-advance model and a model where money yields liquidity services. The effects of currency substitutability on exchange rates, international adjustment and the inflation tax are discussed. The paper also reviews the empirical facts on the size of currency substitution in developed and developing countries. Whereas currency substitution is found to be sizeable in some developing countries and on the rise in the European Community, estimates of the ability to substitute foreign for domestic currency are often found to be unreliable due to data, methodological and conceptual problems. Policy implications of currency substitution for international monetary cooperation and inflationary finance are explored.

Suggested Citation

  • Giovannini, Alberto & Turtelboom, Bart, 1993. "Currency Substitution," CEPR Discussion Papers 759, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:759

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1972. "Expectations and the neutrality of money," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 103-124, April.
    2. Phelps, Edmund S & Taylor, John B, 1977. "Stabilizing Powers of Monetary Policy under Rational Expectations," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 85(1), pages 163-190, February.
    3. Francesco Giavazzi & Marco Pagano, 1991. "The Advantage of Tying One's Hands: EMS Discipline and Central Bank Credibility," NBER Chapters,in: International Volatility and Economic Growth: The First Ten Years of The International Seminar on Macroeconomics, pages 303-330 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Subramanian S Sriram, 1999. "Survey of Literature on Demand for Money; Theoretical and Empirical Work with Special Reference to Error-Correction Models," IMF Working Papers 99/64, International Monetary Fund.
    2. Policy Analyst - UNICEF Zimbabwe, 2002. "Evidence on the demand for money function in Uganda," Development and Comp Systems 0210005, EconWPA.

    More about this item


    Currency Substitution; Dollarization; Foreign Currency Deposits; Liquidity; Money Demand;

    JEL classification:

    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • F36 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics


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