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Economies d'agglomération à l'exportation et difficulté d'accès aux marchés

  • KOENING, Philippe
  • MAYNERIS, Florian
  • PONCET, Sandra

La littérature empirique du commerce international souligne l'existence d'économies d'agglomération à l'exportation. Elle met en évidence l'impact positif de la présence d'autres exportateurs au niveau local sur la probabilité qu'une firme commence à exporter vers un pays donné. Nous explorons ce résultat en étudiant la nature de ces effets en fonction de caractéristiques hétérogènes des firmes exportatrices et de variables mesurant la difficulté d'accès aux pays importateurs : temps et nombre de documents nécessaires à l'importation dans le pays de destination, demande pondérée, et mesure du risque économique et global dans le pays. Nos résultats suggèrent que l'impact des externalités à l'exportation ne diffère pas significativement selon les performances des entreprises. Une augmentation du nombre de voisins exportateurs a par contre davantage d'impact sur la probabilité qu'une firme commence à exporter lorsque le pays de destination est difficile d'accès. Un voisin supplémentaire exportant un produit vers un pays donné augmente par exemple la probabilité qu'une firme commence à exporter ce même produit vers ce même pays de 1,95 point de pourcentage lorsqu'il s'agit d'un pays où les formalités en termes de documents sont plus lourdes que la moyenne, et de 0,69 point lorsque ces formalités sont plus légères que la moyenne. Nos résultats sont robustes à divers sous-échantillons et pour l'ensemble de nos mesures de difficulté d'accès. Ils suggèrent que les démarches collectives et le partage d'expérience encouragés par les pouvoirs publics ces dernières années sont d'autant plus importants que les entreprises souhaitent se lancer à la conquête de marchés difficiles.

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File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/estat.2010.9579
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Paper provided by Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE) in its series CORE Discussion Papers RP with number 2288.

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Handle: RePEc:cor:louvrp:2288
Note: In : Economie et Statistique, 435-436, 85-103, 2010
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  1. Ottaviano, Gianmarco & Melitz, Marc, 2008. "Market Size, Trade, and Productivity," Scholarly Articles 3229096, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  2. Martin, Philippe & Mayer, Thierry & Mayneris, Florian, 2008. "Spatial Concentration and Firm-Level Productivity in France," CEPR Discussion Papers 6858, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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  14. Greenaway, David & Sousa, Nuno & Wakelin, Katharine, 2004. "Do domestic firms learn to export from multinationals?," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 1027-1043, November.
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