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The Costs and Benefits of Front-loading and Predictability of Immunization


  • Owen Barder


  • Ethan Yeh


How can the international community save more children’s lives faster and more effectively in the 21st century? This Working Paper analyzes the extent to which “frontloading” and predictable vaccine funding, as proposed by the International Finance Facility for Immunization (IFFIm), is more effective in impacting vaccine coverage than spending vaccine funds equally throughout the lives of projects. The IFFIm is an initiative of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), and supported by the governments of the United Kingdom, France, Sweden, Italy, Spain and Norway. An initial IFFIm investment of $4 billion is expected to prevent 5 million child deaths by 2015, and more than 5 million future adult deaths. Using a stylized model, the authors quantify the positive and negative effects of predictable vaccine funds and frontloading, and finds IFFIm’s approach can increase the impact of vaccine coverage by 22%. This is because stable and long-term financing allows vaccine manufacturers and countries to plan for long periods of time, knowing that resources will be available. Front-loading helps to reduce the spread of disease and to immunize large groups of people faster.

Suggested Citation

  • Owen Barder & Ethan Yeh, 2006. "The Costs and Benefits of Front-loading and Predictability of Immunization," Working Papers 80, Center for Global Development.
  • Handle: RePEc:cgd:wpaper:80

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Michael A. Clemens & Steven Radelet, 2003. "The Millennium Challenge Account: How Much is Too Much, How Long is Long Enough?," Working Papers 23, Center for Global Development.
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    3. David Roodman, 2004. "An Index of Donor Performance," Working Papers 42, Center for Global Development.
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    8. Michael Clemens & Todd Moss, 2005. "Ghost of 0.7%: Origins and Relevance of the International Aid Target," Development and Comp Systems 0509006, EconWPA.
    9. Martin Mühleisen & Dhaneshwar Ghura & Roger Nord & Michael T. Hadjimichael & E. Murat Ucer, 1995. "Sub-Saharan Africa; Growth, Savings, and Investment, 1986-93," IMF Occasional Papers 118, International Monetary Fund.
    10. Arnab Acharya & Ana Teresa Fuzzo de Lima & Mick Moore, 2006. "Proliferation and fragmentation: Transactions costs and the value of aid," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(1), pages 1-21.
    11. Collier, Paul & Dollar, David, 2002. "Aid allocation and poverty reduction," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(8), pages 1475-1500, September.
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    More about this item


    frontloading; vaccine; immunization;

    JEL classification:

    • F0 - International Economics - - General
    • I1 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health
    • O0 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - General

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