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Commodity Money Equilibrium in a Walrasian Trading Post Model: An Elementary Example




Walrasian general competitive equilibrium is considered in a simple example of an exchange economy with commodity-pairwise trading posts and transaction costs. Budget balance is enforced at each trading post separately. Commodity-denominated bid and ask prices at each post allow the post to cover transaction costs through the bid/ask spread. In the absence of double coincidence of wants, the lowest transaction-cost commodity (with the narrowest bid/ask spread) becomes the common medium of exchange, commodity money. Selection of the monetary commodity and adoption of a monetary pattern of trade results from price-guided equilibrium without central direction, fiat, or government.

Suggested Citation

  • Starr, Ross M, 2005. "Commodity Money Equilibrium in a Walrasian Trading Post Model: An Elementary Example," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt1200q2z3, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdl:ucsdec:qt1200q2z3

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hahn, F H, 1971. "Equilibrium with Transaction Costs," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 39(3), pages 417-439, May.
    2. Kurz, Mordecai, 1974. "Equilibrium in a Finite Sequence of Markets with Transaction Cost," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 42(1), pages 1-20, January.
    3. Walter Perrin Heller & Ross M. Starr, 1976. "Equilibrium with Non-convex Transactions Costs: Monetary and Non-monetary Economies," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 43(2), pages 195-215.
    4. Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro & Wright, Randall, 1989. "On Money as a Medium of Exchange," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 927-954, August.
    5. Jones, Robert A, 1976. "The Origin and Development of Media of Exchange," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(4), pages 757-775, August.
    6. Shapley, Lloyd S & Shubik, Martin, 1977. "Trade Using One Commodity as a Means of Payment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 85(5), pages 937-968, October.
    7. Foley, Duncan K., 1970. "Economic equilibrium with costly marketing," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 276-291, September.
    8. David Starrett, 1973. "Inefficiency and the Demand for "Money" in a Sequence Economy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 40(4), pages 437-448.
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