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The Kauffman Index: Startup Activity | National Trends



The Kauffman Index: Startup Activity is a novel early indicator of new business creation in the United States, integrating several high-quality sources of timely entrepreneurship information into one composite indicator of startup activity. The Index captures business activity in all industries, and is based on both a nationally representative sample size of more than a half million observations each year and on the universe of all employer businesses in the United States. This allows us to look at both entrepreneurs and the startups they create. Broad-based entrepreneurship in America appears to be slowly crawling its way out of the depths it has been stuck in since 2010. Startup activity rose in 2015, reversing a five-year downward trend in the United States, giving rise to hope for a revival of entrepreneurship. However, the return remains tepid and well below historical trends. A principle driver of this year’s uptick is the growth of male opportunity entrepreneurship, accompanied by the continued strength of immigrant entrepreneurship. Trends in entrepreneurship rates are analyzed for several additional demographic groups.

Suggested Citation

  • Fairlie, Robert, 2015. "The Kauffman Index: Startup Activity | National Trends," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt5cb198rq, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdl:ucscec:qt5cb198rq

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    1. Daniel BÃDULESCU & Ramona SIMU? & Alina BÃDULESCU, 2019. "New Ventures’ Objectives And Entrepreneurs’ Expectations. Evidence From Edp-Surveyed Companies," Proceedings of the INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE, Faculty of Management, Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania, vol. 13(1), pages 598-606, November.
    2. Timothy Bates & William D. Bradford & Robert Seamans, 2018. "Minority entrepreneurship in twenty-first century America," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 50(3), pages 415-427, March.
    3. Stephens, Bryan & Butler, John Sibley & Garg, Rajiv & Gibson, David V., 2019. "Austin, Boston, Silicon Valley, and New York: Case studies in the location choices of entrepreneurs in maintaining the Technopolis," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 146(C), pages 267-280.
    4. Douglas Cumming & Michele Meoli & Silvio Vismara, 2021. "Does equity crowdfunding democratize entrepreneurial finance?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 56(2), pages 533-552, February.
    5. Sharon Poczter & Melanie Shapsis, 2018. "Gender disparity in angel financing," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 51(1), pages 31-55, June.
    6. Francesc Miralles & Ferran Giones & Brian Gozun, 2017. "Does direct experience matter? Examining the consequences of current entrepreneurial behavior on entrepreneurial intention," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 881-903, September.
    7. Heinrich Hock & Mary Anne Anderson & Robert Santillano, "undated". "Supporting Self-Employment as a Reemployment Strategy: Impacts of a Pilot Program for Dislocated Workers After 18 Months," Mathematica Policy Research Reports e0233e6eb1d44124a0cb90bc8, Mathematica Policy Research.
    8. Hendrik Beiler, 2016. "Do You Dare? The Effect of Economic Conditions on Entrepreneurship among College Graduates," Working Paper Series in Economics 88, University of Cologne, Department of Economics.
    9. Borowiecki, Karol Jan & Dahl, Christian Møller, 2021. "What makes an artist? The evolution and clustering of creative activity in the US since 1850," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(C).
    10. Tianjiao Qiu, 2018. "Influence Of Cultural Practices On Social Support Of Female Entrepreneurs' Startups," Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship (JDE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 23(01), pages 1-21, March.
    11. Ting Zhang & Zoltan Acs, 2018. "Age and entrepreneurship: nuances from entrepreneur types and generation effects," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 51(4), pages 773-809, December.
    12. Mario La Torre & Helen Chiappini (ed.), 2020. "Contemporary Issues in Sustainable Finance," Palgrave Studies in Impact Finance, Palgrave Macmillan, number 978-3-030-40248-8, November.
    13. Chandler Nick, 2019. "Standing alone? A review of the characteristics of the entrepreneur through the actor-activity-attitude framework," Prosperitas, Budapest Business School, vol. 2019(1), pages 12-34.
    14. Eesley, Charles & Wang, Yanbo, 2017. "Social influence in career choice: Evidence from a randomized field experiment on entrepreneurial mentorship," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 636-650.
    15. Borowiecki, Karol Jan, 2019. "The Origins of Creativity: The Case of the Arts in the United States since 1850," Discussion Papers of Business and Economics 11/2019, University of Southern Denmark, Department of Business and Economics.
    16. Nava Ashraf & Alexia Delfino & Edward L. Glaeser, 2019. "Rule of Law and Female Entrepreneurship," NBER Working Papers 26366, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Monica Fisher & Paul A. Lewin, 2018. "Push and pull factors and Hispanic self-employment in the USA," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 51(4), pages 1055-1070, December.
    18. Conti, Annamaria & Dass, Nishant & Di Lorenzo, Francesco & Graham, Stuart J.H., 2019. "Venture capital investment strategies under financing constraints: Evidence from the 2008 financial crisis," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 799-812.
    19. John Sibley Butler & Rajiv Garg & Bryan Stephens, 2020. "Social Networks, Funding, and Regional Advantages in Technology Entrepreneurship: An Empirical Analysis," Information Systems Research, INFORMS, vol. 31(1), pages 198-216, March.
    20. Mack, Elizabeth A. & Marie-Pierre, Lisa & Redican, Kyle, 2017. "Entrepreneurs’ use of internet and social media applications," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 120-139.
    21. Paul Davidson Reynolds, 2017. "When is a Firm Born? Alternative Criteria and Consequences," Business Economics, Palgrave Macmillan;National Association for Business Economics, vol. 52(1), pages 41-56, January.
    22. Christian E. Weller & Jeffrey B. Wenger, 2017. "Can Income Diversification Explain the Growing Entrepreneurship Gap by Age?," Forum for Social Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(2), pages 145-159, April.
    23. Thorsten Drautzburg, 2016. "Just How Important Are New Businesses?," Economic Insights, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, vol. 1(4), pages 1-7, October.
    24. Zandberg, Jonathan, 2021. "Family comes first: Reproductive health and the gender gap in entrepreneurship," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 140(3), pages 838-864.
    25. Xaver Neumeyer & Susana C. Santos & Michael H. Morris, 2019. "Who is left out: exploring social boundaries in entrepreneurial ecosystems," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 44(2), pages 462-484, April.

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    Business; Social and Behavioral Sciences; entrepreneurship; business; startups; self-employment;
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