IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

The Economics of Demand Led-Growth: Theory and Evidence for Brazil

  • José Luis Oreiro


    (Departamento de Economia (Department of Economics) Faculdade de Economia, Administração, Contabilidade e Ciência da Informação e Documentação (FACE) (Faculty of Economics, Administration, Accounting and Information Science) Universidade de Brasília)

  • Luciano Nakabashi

    (Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR))

  • Guilherme Jonas

    (Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU))

  • Gustavo Souza

    (PhD Candidate at Universidade de Brasília.)

The objective of the present article is to present the theory of demand-led growth and some econometric evidence of the existence of a demand-led growth regime for the Brazilian economy. Initially, we will do a brief review of the theory of demand-led growth, based on Kaldor’s (1988) contribution for the theme. According to Kaldor, long-run growth is determined by the sum of the growth rate of government consumption spending and the growth rate of exports. Based on the methodology developed by Atesoglu (2002), we run some econometric tests for the hypothesis of a demand-led growth regime for the Brazilian economy. The results of the tests show that almost 85% of the growth rate of real GDP in the period 1990-2005 is explained by variables at the demand side of the economy, mainly exports growth and government consumption. However, due to the fiscal crisis of Brazil, growth can´t be led by fiscal expansion so that the only option for Brazil is to adopt an export led growth model. The econometric tests also show that natural growth rate of the Brazilian economy is endogenous, being determined by the growth rate of aggregate demand. Regarding the determinants of export growth, it is shown that the maintenance of real exchange rate at competitive levels is an important device for developing countries as Brazil.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Our checks indicate that this address may not be valid because: 500 Can't connect to If this is indeed the case, please notify (Luciano Póvoa)

File Function: First version, 2010
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Departamento de Economia da Universidade de Brasilia in its series Working papers - Textos para Discussao do Departamento de Economia da Universidade de Brasilia with number 339.

in new window

Length: 34 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:brs:wpaper:339
Contact details of provider: Postal: Universidade de Brasília UnB - Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro Asa Norte CEP 70910-900, Brasília, Brasil
Phone: 55-61-3107-6704
Fax: (61) 340-2311
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Dornbusch, Rudiger & Fischer, Stanley & Samuelson, Paul A, 1977. "Comparative Advantage, Trade, and Payments in a Ricardian Model with a Continuum of Goods," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(5), pages 823-39, December.
  2. Kwiatkowski, Denis & Phillips, Peter C. B. & Schmidt, Peter & Shin, Yongcheol, 1992. "Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root : How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1-3), pages 159-178.
  3. Miguel A. LeÛn-Ledesma & A. P. Thirlwall, 2002. "The endogeneity of the natural rate of growth," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 26(4), pages 441-459, July.
  4. Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
  5. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
  6. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
  7. Granger, C. W. J., 1981. "Some properties of time series data and their use in econometric model specification," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 121-130, May.
  8. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-37, October.
  9. McCombie, J S L & de Ridder, J R, 1984. ""The Verdoorn Law Controversy": Some New Empirical Evidence Using U.S. State Data," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 36(2), pages 268-84, June.
  10. Gilberto A. Lib�nio, 2009. "Aggregate demand and the endogeneity of the natural rate of growth: evidence from Latin American economies," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 33(5), pages 967-984, September.
  11. Paulo Gala, 2008. "Real exchange rate levels and economic development: theoretical analysis and econometric evidence," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 32(2), pages 273-288, March.
  12. Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-80, November.
  13. Giovanni Dosi & Keith Pavitt & Luc Soete, 1990. "The Economics of Technical Change and International Trade," LEM Book Series, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy, number dosietal-1990, August.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:brs:wpaper:339. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Luciano Póvoa)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.