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The changing landscape of financial markets in Europe, the United States and Japan

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  • Michiel Bijlsma
  • Gijsbert T. J. Zwart

Abstract

We compare the structure of the financial sectors of the EU27, Japan and the United States, looking at a set of 23 indicators.We find a large variation within the European Union in the structure of the financial sector. Using principal components analysis, we identify robust groups of EU countries. One group consists of the eastern European members that entered the EU more recently.These have substantially smaller financial sectors than the old member states. A second group can be classified as market-based (MBEU) and the third group is more bank-based (BBEU).We compare US, MBEU, BBEU, Eastern EU and Japan with the following main results. First, the groups within Europe are geographically related. Second, in many indicators, MBEU countries are closer to the (market-based) US, while BBEU countries more closely resemble Japan. Paradoxically, however, market-based EU countries also have large banking sectors. Banks in market-based countries have larger cross-border assets and liabilities, and derive a larger fraction of their income from fees, rather than interest income, than banks in bank-based countries. Finally, for most indicators, the ordering of groups of countries is quite stable over time, but while the crisis has had no impact on the relative ordering of the groups, it has slightly widened the gap between the US and all EU regions insome respects. We also find that during the crisis, substitution between market-based and bank-based sources of finance occurred in the US, and to a lesser extent in MBEU and BBEU countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Michiel Bijlsma & Gijsbert T. J. Zwart, 2013. "The changing landscape of financial markets in Europe, the United States and Japan," Working Papers 774, Bruegel.
  • Handle: RePEc:bre:wpaper:774
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    Cited by:

    1. Kappler, Marcus & Schleer, Frauke, 2013. "How many factors and shocks cause financial stress?," ZEW Discussion Papers 13-100, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    2. Vincenzo Cuciniello & Federico M. Signoretti, 2015. "Large Banks, Loan Rate Markup, and Monetary Policy," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 11(3), pages 141-177, June.
    3. Kappler, Marcus & Schleer, Frauke, 2017. "A financially stressed euro area," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 11, pages 1-37.
    4. Michiel Bijlsma & Andrei Dubovik, 2014. "Banks, Financial Markets and Growth in Developed Countries: a Survey of the empirical literature," CPB Discussion Paper 266, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    5. Schleer, Frauke & Semmler, Willi, 2015. "Financial sector and output dynamics in the euro area: Non-linearities reconsidered," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 235-263.
    6. Steven Ongena & Ibolya Schindele & Dzsamila Vonnák, 2017. "In Lands of Foreign Currency Credit, Bank Lending Channels Run Through?," MNB Working Papers 2017/6, Magyar Nemzeti Bank (Central Bank of Hungary).
    7. Nobi, Ashadun & Lee, Jae Woo, 2016. "State and group dynamics of world stock market by principal component analysis," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 450(C), pages 85-94.
    8. Schleer, Frauke & Semmler, Willi, 2013. "Financial sector-output dynamics in the euro area: Non-linearities reconsidered," ZEW Discussion Papers 13-068, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    9. Michiel Bijlsma & Ferry Haaijen & Casper van Ewijk, 2014. "Economic growth and funded pension systems," CPB Discussion Paper 279, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    10. repec:eee:phsmap:v:482:y:2017:i:c:p:337-344 is not listed on IDEAS

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