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En busca de nuevas tierras y vecinos: Proceso de colonización en la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Serranía de Perijá y Zona Bananera del Magdalena (siglos XVII - XIX)

Author

Listed:
  • Joaquín Viloria De La Hoz

    () (Banco de la República de Colombia)

Abstract

En el documento se analizan los hechos más relevantes de la colonización adelantada en la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta y Serranía de Perijá, así como en la zona agrícola al sur de Ciénaga, más tarde conocida como Zona Bananera del Magdalena. El período de estudio se extiende entre los siglos XVII y XIX. Durante el siglo XVIII, las autoridades coloniales decidieron retomar la colonización de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta y su primer paso fue la evangelización de las comunidades indígenas allí establecidas. También, en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, el sistema colonial ordenó establecer una colonia agrícola con irlandeses, a mitad de camino entre Santa Marta y Valle de Upar, en territorio dominado por los indígenas chimilas. Estos proyectos fundacionales cumplían propósitos militares, religiosos y económicos. Más adelante, el proceso de la Independencia generó expectativas económicas en la nueva dirigencia política colombiana, que sólo empezarían a concretarse tres décadas más tarde. Aparejado a estas nuevas dinámicas, fue ganando fuerza el proyecto de crear empresas de inmigración y colonización en diferentes zonas del país, para atraer inmigrantes europeos. Pero estas empresas tropezaron con múltiples inconvenientes como la pobreza fiscal en los diferentes niveles de gobierno y las guerras recurrentes. La Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta no fue ajena a la expansión cafetera nacional, lo que generó una colonización moderada a partir de las últimas décadas del siglo XIX. Lo cierto es que la colonización e inmigración planificada de la Sierra fue un fracaso, pero en cambio prosperó la emprendida por empresas particulares o por familias con vocación empresarial. De allí se pueden destacar las haciendas cafeteras organizadas en las cercanías de Santa Marta, Valledupar y Villanueva. **** ABSTRACT: The document analyzes the most relevant facts of the early colonization in Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Serrania de Perijá, as well as in the agricultural area south of the Ciénaga, later known as the Magdalena Banana Zone. The period of study extends between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. During the 18th century, the colonial authorities decided to take back colonization of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, and their first step was the evangelization of the indigenous communities established there. In addition, in the second half of the 18th century, the colonial system ordered the establishment of an agricultural colony with the Irish community, halfway between Santa Marta and Valle de Upar, in territory dominated by the indigenous people known as Chimilas. These foundational projects fulfilled military, religious and economic purposes. Later, the process of Independence generated economic expectations in the new Colombian political leadership, which would only begin to materialize three decades later. Together with these new dynamics, the project of creating immigration and colonization companies in different areas of the country to attract European immigrants was gaining strength. Nevertheless, these companies encountered multiple problems such as fiscal poverty at different levels of government and recurrent wars. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta was not unfamiliar with the national coffee expansion, which generated a moderate colonization from the last decades of the nineteenth century. It is true that colonization and the planned immigration of the Mountain range was a failure but, on the other hand, the one undertaken by private companies or families with business vocation was prosperous. As examples, it is worth mentioning coffee plantations organized nearby Santa Marta, Valledupar and Villanueva.

Suggested Citation

  • Joaquín Viloria De La Hoz, 2018. "En busca de nuevas tierras y vecinos: Proceso de colonización en la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Serranía de Perijá y Zona Bananera del Magdalena (siglos XVII - XIX)," Cuadernos de Historia Económica 49, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  • Handle: RePEc:bdr:cheedt:49
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    File URL: http://repositorio.banrep.gov.co/bitstream/handle/20.500.12134/9539/CHE_49.pdf?sequence=6&isAllowed=y
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    Keywords

    Colonización; inmigración; Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; Zona Bananera de Santa; Marta; Serranía de Perijá; café; banano. Colonization; immigration; Magdalena’s banana zone; coffee; banana.;

    JEL classification:

    • N9 - Economic History - - Regional and Urban History
    • N96 - Economic History - - Regional and Urban History - - - Latin America; Caribbean
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

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