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Seasonal Outliers in Time Series


  • Regina Kaiser
  • Agustín Maravall


In the analysis of time series, it is frequent to classify perturbations as Additive Outliers (AO), Innovative Outliers (IO), Level Shift (LS) outliers or Transitory Change (TC) outliers. In this paper, a new outlier type, the Seasonal Level Shift (SLS), is introduced in order to complete the usual classification.

Suggested Citation

  • Regina Kaiser & Agustín Maravall, 1999. "Seasonal Outliers in Time Series," Working Papers 9915, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
  • Handle: RePEc:bde:wpaper:9915

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. John Y. Campbell & Pierre Perron, 1991. "Pitfalls and Opportunities: What Macroeconomists Should Know About Unit Roots," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1991, Volume 6, pages 141-220 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Stephen Cecchetti & Nelson C. Mark & Robert Sonora, 1998. "Price Level Convergence Among United States Cities: Lessons for the European Central Bank," Working Papers 32, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank).
    3. Kenneth Rogoff, 1996. "The Purchasing Power Parity Puzzle," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 34(2), pages 647-668, June.
    4. Bela Balassa, 1964. "The Purchasing-Power Parity Doctrine: A Reappraisal," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 72, pages 584-584.
    5. Matthew Canzoneri & Robert Cumby & Behzad Diba & Gwen Eudey, 1998. "Trends in European Productivity: Implications for Real Exchange Rates, Real Interest Rates and Inflation Differentials," Working Papers 27, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank).
    6. Taylor, Mark P. & Sarno, Lucio, 1998. "The behavior of real exchange rates during the post-Bretton Woods period," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 281-312, December.
    7. David C. Parsley & Shang-Jin Wei, 1996. "Convergence to the Law of One Price Without Trade Barriers or Currency Fluctuations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(4), pages 1211-1236.
    8. Rogers, John H. & Jenkins, Michael, 1995. "Haircuts or hysteresis? Sources of movements in real exchange rates," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(3-4), pages 339-360, May.
    9. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
    10. Bergstrand, Jeffrey H, 1991. "Structural Determinants of Real Exchange Rates and National Price Levels: Some Empirical Evidence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(1), pages 325-334, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kaiser, Regina & Maravall, Agustín, 2000. "An application of tramo-seats: changes in seasonality and current trend-cycle assesment: the german retail trade turnover series," DES - Working Papers. Statistics and Econometrics. WS 10010, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Estadística.
    2. Bernardí Cabrer Borrás & David Iranzo Pérez, 2007. "El Efecto De Los Atentados Del 11-s Sobre El Turismo En España," Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, vol. 25, pages 365-386, Abril.
    3. Regina Kaiser & Agustín Maravall, 2000. "An Application of TRAMO-SEATS: Changes in Seasonality and Current Trend-Cycle Assessment: the German Retail Trade Turnover Series," Working Papers 0011, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
    4. Luciana Crosilla, 2006. "The seasonality of ISAE business and consumer surveys: methodological aspects and empirical evidence," ISAE Working Papers 68, ISTAT - Italian National Institute of Statistics - (Rome, ITALY).

    More about this item



    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models


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