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Understanding the Money-Prices Relationship Under Low and High Inflation Regimes: Argentina 1970-2005

  • Emiliano Basco

    ()

    (Central Bank of Argentina)

  • Laura D´Amato

    ()

    (Central Bank of Argentina)

  • Lorena Garegnani

    ()

    (Central Bank of Argentina)

Recent cross-country empirical evidence indicates that the money-prices relationship depends on the average rate of inflation. This relationship is strong in economies with high inflation, but weakens under low inflation. Based on these findings, we study the dependence of the money-prices relationship on the level of inflation in Argentina along the last 35 years. We use descriptive analysis as well as cointegration tests to study the long run relationship between money growth and inflation. Proportionality holds for the high inflation period but weakens under low inflation. Money velocity is quite volatile but keeps a positive correlation with inflation in the long run. Under low inflation, velocity correlates negatively with money growth, a result consistent with the empirical evidence in the literature. Using VAR analysis, we focus on the transmission of nominal shocks to inflation in the short run. We enlarge the set of information to include other relevant macroeconomic variables such as the nominal interest rate, the multilateral nominal exchange rate depreciation and GDP growth. These results allow us to identify different dynamics of money growth and inflation under low and high inflation. In particular we are able to capture the role played by inflation expectations implicit in nominal interest rates in driving the dynamics of money growth and inflation under high inflation. Although the money growth-inflation short run relationship weakens under low inflation, money continues to play a role in explaining inflation dynamics.

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Paper provided by Central Bank of Argentina, Economic Research Department in its series BCRA Working Paper Series with number 200613.

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Length: 38 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bcr:wpaper:200613
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  1. Fernando Alvarez & Andrew Atkeson & Chris Edmond, 2003. "On the Sluggish Response of Prices to Money in an Inventory-Theoretic Model of Money Demand," NBER Working Papers 10016, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Lawrence J. Christiano & Martin Eichenbaum, 1992. "Liquidity Effects and the Monetary Transmission Mechanism," NBER Working Papers 3974, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Eric M. Leeper & David B. Gordon, 1991. "In search of the liquidity effect," International Finance Discussion Papers 403, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  4. Canova, Fabio, 1998. "Detrending and business cycle facts," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 475-512, May.
  5. Christopher A. Sims, 1992. "Interpreting the Macroeconomic Time Series Facts: The Effects of Monetary Policy," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1011, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  6. Gerald P. Dwyer, Jr. & R.W. Hafer, 1999. "Are money growth and inflation still related?," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Q2, pages 32-43.
  7. Kydland, Finn E & Prescott, Edward C, 1977. "Rules Rather Than Discretion: The Inconsistency of Optimal Plans," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 85(3), pages 473-91, June.
  8. Favero, Carlo A., 2001. "Applied Macroeconometrics," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198296850.
  9. Johansen, Soren, 1992. "Cointegration in partial systems and the efficiency of single-equation analysis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 389-402, June.
  10. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
  11. De Grauwe, Paul & Polan, Magdalena, 2001. "Is Inflation Always and Everywhere a Monetary Phenomenon?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2841, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  12. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
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