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Competitive market for multiple firms and economic crisis


  • Yong Tao


The origin of economic crises is a key problem for economics. We present a model of long-run competitive markets to show that the multiplicity of behaviors in an economic system, over a long time scale, emerge as statistical regularities (perfectly competitive markets obey Bose-Einstein statistics and purely monopolistic-competitive markets obey Boltzmann statistics) and that how interaction among firms influences the evolutionary of competitive markets. It has been widely accepted that perfect competition is most efficient. Our study shows that the perfectly competitive system, as an extreme case of competitive markets, is most efficient but not stable, and gives rise to economic crises as society reaches full employment. In the economic crisis revealed by our model, many firms condense (collapse) into the lowest supply level (zero supply, namely bankruptcy status), in analogy to Bose-Einstein condensation. This curious phenomenon arises because perfect competition (homogeneous competitions) equals symmetric (indistinguishable) investment direction, a fact abhorred by nature. Therefore, we urge the promotion of monopolistic competition (heterogeneous competitions) rather than perfect competition. To provide early warning of economic crises, we introduce a resolving index of investment, which approaches zero in the run-up to an economic crisis. On the other hand, our model discloses, as a profound conclusion, that the technological level for a long-run social or economic system is proportional to the freedom (disorder) of this system; in other words, technology equals the entropy of system. As an application of this new concept, we give a possible answer to the Needham question: "Why was it that despite the immense achievements of traditional China it had been in Europe and not in China that the scientific and industrial revolutions occurred?"

Suggested Citation

  • Yong Tao, 2010. "Competitive market for multiple firms and economic crisis," Papers 1010.1413,
  • Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1010.1413

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    Cited by:

    1. Oh, Gabjin & Kim, Ho-yong & Ahn, Seok-Won & Kwak, Wooseop, 2015. "Analyzing the financial crisis using the entropy density function," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 419(C), pages 464-469.
    2. Tao, Yong & Wu, Xiangjun & Li, Changshuai, 2017. "Rawls' fairness, income distribution and alarming level of Gini coefficient," Economics Discussion Papers 2017-67, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    3. Yong Tao, 2015. "Universal Laws of Human Society's Income Distribution," Papers 1506.05418,
    4. Yong Tao & Xiangjun Wu & Changshuai Li, 2014. "Rawls' Fairness, Income Distribution and Alarming Level of Gini Coefficient," Papers 1409.3979,
    5. Tao, Yong, 2015. "Universal laws of human society’s income distribution," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 435(C), pages 89-94.
    6. Yong Tao, 2016. "Spontaneous economic order," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 26(3), pages 467-500, July.

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