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Staggered designs for experiments with more than one hard-to-change factor


  • ARNOUTS, Heidi
  • GOOS, Peter


In many industrial experiments, some of the factors are not independently reset for each run. This is due to time and/or cost constraints and to the hard-to-change nature of these factors. Most of the literature restricts the attention to split-plot designs in which all the hard-to-change factors are independently reset at the same points in time. This constraint is to some extent relaxed in split-split-plot designs because these require the least hard-to-change factors to be reset more often than the most hard-to-change factors. A key feature of the split-split-plot designs, however, is that the least hard-to-change factors are reset whenever the most hard to change factors are reset. In this article, we relax this constraint and present a new type of design which allows the hard-to-change factor levels to be reset at entirely different points in time. We show that the new designs are cost-efficient and that they outperform split-plot and split-split-plot designs in terms of statistical efficiency. Because of the fact that the hard-to-change factors are independently reset alternatingly, an appropriate name for the new design is staggered design.

Suggested Citation

  • ARNOUTS, Heidi & GOOS, Peter, 2008. "Staggered designs for experiments with more than one hard-to-change factor," Working Papers 2008018, University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:ant:wpaper:2008018

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. D. R. Bingham & E. D. Schoen & R. R. Sitter, 2004. "Designing fractional factorial split-plot experiments with few whole-plot factors," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series C, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 53(2), pages 325-339.
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    1. ARNOUTS, Heidi & GOOS, Peter, 2013. "Staggered-level designs for response surface modeling," Working Papers 2013027, University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics.

    More about this item


    A- and D-optimality criterion; Cost; Hard-to-change factors; Split-plot design; Split-split-plot design; Staggered design;

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