Fertility and Female Work Force Participation in Bangladesh: Causality and Cointegration
This paper examines the causal links between fertility and female labor force participation in Bangladesh over the period 1974-2000 by specifying a bivariate and several trivariate models in a vector error correction framework. The three trivariate models alternatively include average age at first marriage for females, per capita GDP and infant mortality rate, which control for the effects of other socio-economic factors on fertility and female labor force participation. All the specified models indicate an inverse long-run relationship between fertility and female labor force participation. While the bivariate model also indicates bidirectional causality, the multivariate models confirm only a unidirectional causality – from labor force participation to fertility. Further, per capita GDP and infant mortality rate appear to Granger-cause both fertility and female labor force participation.
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- Ben-David, Dan & Lumsdaine, Robin L & Papell, David, 1996. "The Unit Root Hypothesis in Long-term Output: Evidence from Two Structural Breaks for 16 Countries," CEPR Discussion Papers 1336, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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