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R&D Productivity and the Organization of Cluster Policy: An Empirical Evaluation of the Industrial Cluster Project in Japan

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  • Junichi Nishimura
  • Hiroyuki Okamuro

Abstract

Industrial clusters have attracted increasing attention as important locations of innovation. Therefore, several countries have started promotion policies for industrial clusters. However, there are few empirical studies on cluster policies. This paper examines the effects of the “Industrial Cluster Project” (ICP) in Japan on the R&D productivity of participants, using a unique dataset of 229 small firms, and discusses the conditions necessary for the effective organization of cluster policies. Different from former policy approaches, the ICP aims at building collaborative networks between universities and industries and supports the autonomous development of existing regional industries without direct intervention in the clustering process. Thus far, the ICP is similar to indirect support systems adopted by successful European clusters. Our estimation results suggest that participation in the cluster project alone does not affect R&D productivity. Moreover, research collaboration with a partner in the same cluster region decreases R&D productivity both in terms of the quantity and quality of patents. Therefore, in order to improve the R&D efficiency of local firms, it is also important to construct wide-range collaborative networks within and beyond the clusters, although most clusters focus on the network at a narrowly defined local level. However, cluster participants apply for more patents than others without reducing patent quality when they collaborate with national universities in the same cluster region.

Suggested Citation

  • Junichi Nishimura & Hiroyuki Okamuro, 2010. "R&D Productivity and the Organization of Cluster Policy: An Empirical Evaluation of the Industrial Cluster Project in Japan," DRUID Working Papers 10-06, DRUID, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy/Aalborg University, Department of Business Studies.
  • Handle: RePEc:aal:abbswp:10-06
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    Cited by:

    1. Michał Bojanowski & Rense Corten & Bastian Westbrock, 2012. "The structure and dynamics of the global network of inter-firm R&D partnerships 1989–2002," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 37(6), pages 967-987, December.
    2. Hiroyuki Okamuro & Junichi Nishimura, 2013. "Impact of university intellectual property policy on the performance of university-industry research collaboration," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 273-301, June.
    3. OKAMURO, Hiroyuki & NISHIMURA, Junichi, 2018. "What Shapes Local Innovation Policies? Empirical Evidence from Japanese Cities," CCES Discussion Paper Series 68, Center for Research on Contemporary Economic Systems, Graduate School of Economics, Hitotsubashi University.
    4. Kadokawa, Kazuo, 2011. "Applicability of Marshall’s Agglomeration Theory to Indus-trial Clustering in the Japanese Manufacturing Sector: An Exploratory Factor Analysis Approach," Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, Mid-Continent Regional Science Association, vol. 41(2).
    5. Magali Chaudey & Marion Dessertine, 2016. "Impact sur l’emploi de la participation aux projets de R&D des pôles de compétitivité. Méthode et résultats," Working Papers 1626, Groupe d'Analyse et de Théorie Economique Lyon St-Étienne (GATE Lyon St-Étienne), Université de Lyon.
    6. Beck, Mathias & Junge, Martin & Kaiser, Ulrich, 2017. "Public Funding and Corporate Innovation," IZA Discussion Papers 11196, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Okamuro, Hiroyuki & Nishimura, Junichi, 2011. "Management of Cluster Policies: Case Studies of Japanese, German, and French Bio-clusters," CEI Working Paper Series 2011-7, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    8. Lucas Figal Garone & Alessandro Maffioli & Joao Negri & Cesar Rodriguez & Gonzalo Vázquez-Baré, 2015. "Cluster development policy, SME’s performance, and spillovers: evidence from Brazil," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 44(4), pages 925-948, April.
    9. Magali Chaudey & Marion Dessertine, 2016. "Impact sur l'emploi de la participation aux projets de R&D des pôles de compétitivité. Méthode et résultats," Working Papers halshs-01361349, HAL.
    10. repec:kap:jtecht:v:43:y:2018:i:3:d:10.1007_s10961-017-9626-4 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Lionel Fontagné & Pamina Koenig & Florian Mayneris & Sandra Poncet, 2013. "Cluster Policies And Firm Selection: Evidence From France," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(5), pages 897-922, December.
    12. Amel Ben Abdesslem & Raphaël Chiappini, 2016. "Cluster Policy and Firm Performance: A Case Study of the French Optic/Photonic Industry," GREDEG Working Papers 2016-26, Groupe de REcherche en Droit, Economie, Gestion (GREDEG CNRS), University of Nice Sophia Antipolis.
    13. Miroslav Žižka & Petra Rydvalová, 2014. "Influence of Clusters on the Intensity of Innovation Outputs," The AMFITEATRU ECONOMIC journal, Academy of Economic Studies - Bucharest, Romania, vol. 16(37), pages 994-994, August.
    14. P. Giannoccolo & C. Vergari, 2015. "Revealing incentives for vertical integration in the presence of glocal policies," Working Papers wp1015, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
    15. Nishimura, Junichi & Okamuro, Hiroyuki, 2011. "Subsidy and networking: The effects of direct and indirect support programs of the cluster policy," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(5), pages 714-727, June.
    16. repec:eee:tefoso:v:127:y:2018:i:c:p:85-96 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Hiroyuki Okamuro & Junichi Nishimura, 2015. "Local Management of National Cluster Policies: Comparative Case Studies of Japanese, German, and French Biotechnology Clusters," Administrative Sciences, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(4), pages 1-27, November.
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    20. Uwe Cantner & Holger Graf & Susanne Hinzmann, 2013. "Policy induced innovation networks: the case of the German "Leading-Edge Cluster competition"," Jena Economic Research Papers 2013-008, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    21. Tsai-Ju Liao & Chwo-Ming Yu, 2013. "The impact of local linkages, international linkages, and absorptive capacity on innovation for foreign firms operating in an emerging economy," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 38(6), pages 809-827, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Industrial cluster; University-industry partnership; Small and medium enterprise; R&D; Patent;

    JEL classification:

    • O23 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy - - - Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development
    • O32 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
    • O38 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Government Policy
    • R38 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location - - - Government Policy

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