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Innovation and growth in Germany over the past 150 years

In: Entrepreneurships, the New Economy and Public Policy

Author

Listed:
  • Hariolf Grupp

    (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI)
    Institute of Economic Policy Research (IWW) at the University of Karlsruhe)

  • Icíar Dominguez Lacasa

    (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI))

  • Monika Friedrich-Nishio

    (Institute of Economic Policy Research (IWW) at the University of Karlsruhe)

  • Andre Jungmittag

    (University of Wuppertal)

Abstract

This contribution starts from today’s definitions of innovation indicators and traces their evolution back over the past 150 years. It is divided into a descriptive and an econometric part. The German innovation system has generally been very stable, even though it witnessed several political changes over the past century. This allows a comparison of the period 1850–1913 with 1951–1999. In the first period, the overall empirical results indicate a linear innovation relation between student numbers as well as public science expenditure, the number of patents granted, and economic demand. However, the second period suggests a different logic in the innovation process: demand drives total R&D expenditure, while patent output does not follow demand. The real domestic product does not seem to depend strongly on innovation activities.

Suggested Citation

  • Hariolf Grupp & Icíar Dominguez Lacasa & Monika Friedrich-Nishio & Andre Jungmittag, 2005. "Innovation and growth in Germany over the past 150 years," Springer Books, in: Uwe Cantner & Elias Dinopoulos & Robert F. Lanzillotti (ed.), Entrepreneurships, the New Economy and Public Policy, pages 267-287, Springer.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:sprchp:978-3-540-26994-6_15
    DOI: 10.1007/3-540-26994-0_15
    as

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