Private Agricultural Research
This chapter serves to assess the quantity and impact of private agricultural research in developing countries, alongside the policies which affect that research. To provide context, an outline of the history, size and structure of private research presents data on research expenditures by region, by agency, by crop and by industrial sector. Evidence on research inputs reflects not only the importance of private research, but also the wide national and regional differences in both inputs and implementation of programs. Research output and intellectual property rights (IPR) protection are also strikingly different across time and space, as seen in data on agricultural IPRs by region, by industrial origin, and by crop type. The diffusion of agricultural innovations among farmers is described using data on approvals of genetically modified crops, and on cultivated areas actually planted. Studies of the subsequent impacts of agricultural research show that private sector research is making an important contribution to agricultural productivity growth in some countries and could make an even larger impact if government policies were more favorable. The conclusion provides a review of economic and policy determinants affecting private incentives, and some policy prescriptions to encourage further investment.
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