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Court Ordered Desegregation: Successes and Failures Integrating American Schools since Brown versus Board of Education

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  • Sarah J. Reber

Abstract

This paper uses a new methodology to assess the effects of court-ordered desegregation plans on segregation and white enrollment. I then assess what characteristics of districts are predictive of having more or less white flight when desegregation plans are implemented. I exploit the wide variation in the timing of implementation of desegregation plans to identify their effects. I find strong evidence that segregation fell when districts implemented desegregation plans; plans were also associated with significant white enrollment losses that offset about one-third of the within-district reductions in segregation. White flight was particularly severe in districts with more public school districts in the same metropolitan area.

Suggested Citation

  • Sarah J. Reber, 2005. "Court Ordered Desegregation: Successes and Failures Integrating American Schools since Brown versus Board of Education," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 40(3).
  • Handle: RePEc:uwp:jhriss:v:40:y:2005:i:2:p559-590
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Clotfelter, Charles T., 1979. "Urban school desegregation and declines in white enrollment: A reexamination," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 352-370, July.
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    1. repec:tul:wpaper:1506 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Murray, Thomas J., 2016. "Public or private? The influence of immigration on native schooling choices in the United States," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 268-283.
    3. Nathaniel Baum-Snow & Byron F. Lutz, 2011. "School Desegregation, School Choice, and Changes in Residential Location Patterns by Race," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 3019-3046.
    4. David Card & Alexandre Mas & Jesse Rothstein, 2008. "Tipping and the Dynamics of Segregation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 123(1), pages 177-218.
    5. Harding, Matthew & Hsiaw, Alice, 2014. "Goal setting and energy conservation," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 107(PA), pages 209-227.
    6. Stephen B. Billings & David J. Deming & Jonah E. Rockoff, 2012. "School Segregation, Educational Attainment and Crime: Evidence from the end of busing in Charlotte-Mecklenburg," NBER Working Papers 18487, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. repec:eee:regeco:v:66:y:2017:i:c:p:198-212 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Mariana Lopes da Fonseca, 2016. "Candid Lame Ducks," CESifo Working Paper Series 5773, CESifo Group Munich.
    9. Baltagi, Badi H. & Yang, Zhenlin, 2013. "Heteroskedasticity and non-normality robust LM tests for spatial dependence," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, pages 725-739.
    10. Peter Leopold S. Bergman, 2016. "The Effects of School Integration: Evidence from a Randomized Desegregation Program," CESifo Working Paper Series 6119, CESifo Group Munich.
    11. Arora, Gaurav & Wolter, Peter T. & Feng, Hongli & Hennessy, David A., 2015. "Role of Ethanol Plants in Dakotas’ Land Use Change: Analysis Using Remotely Sensed Data," 2015 AAEA & WAEA Joint Annual Meeting, July 26-28, San Francisco, California 205877, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association;Western Agricultural Economics Association.
    12. Kertesi, Gábor & Kézdi, Gábor, 2009. "Általános iskolai szegregáció Magyarországon az ezredforduló után
      [Primary school segregation in Hungary at the turn of the century]
      ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(11), pages 959-1000.
    13. Eric A. Hanushek & John F. Kain & Steven G. Rivkin, 2009. "New Evidence about Brown v. Board of Education: The Complex Effects of School Racial Composition on Achievement," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 27(3), pages 349-383, July.
    14. Moizeau, Fabien, 2015. "Dynamics of social norms in the city," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 70-87.
    15. Hugh Macartney & John D. Singleton, 2017. "School Boards and Student Segregation," NBER Working Papers 23619, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Hinrichs, Peter, 2014. "An Empirical Analysis of Racial Segregation in Higher Education," Working Paper 1435, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
    17. David Card & Jesse Rothstein, 2005. "Racial Segregation and the Black-White Test Score Gap," Working Papers 879, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..

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