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Demographics and Entrepreneurship

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Listed:
  • James Liang
  • Hui Wang
  • Edward P. Lazear

Abstract

Entrepreneurship requires energy and creativity as well as business acumen. Some factors that contribute to entrepreneurship decline with age, but business skills increase with experience in high-level positions. Having too many older workers in society slows entrepreneurship. When older workers occupy key positions, they block younger workers from acquiring skills. A theory is formulated and tested using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data. A one standard deviation decrease in a country’s median age increases new business formation by 2.5 percentage points, which is about 40 percent of the mean rate. Furthermore, older societies have lower rates of entrepreneurship at every age.

Suggested Citation

  • James Liang & Hui Wang & Edward P. Lazear, 2018. "Demographics and Entrepreneurship," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 126(S1), pages 140-196.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucp:jpolec:doi:10.1086/698750
    DOI: 10.1086/698750
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    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. Le vieillissement démographique étouffe l'entrepreneuriat
      by ? in D'un champ l'autre on 2014-09-25 23:47:00

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    Cited by:

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    2. Schön, Matthias & Stähler, Nikolai, 2020. "When old meets young? Germany's population ageing and the current account," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 315-336.
    3. Crecente, Fernando & Sarabia, María & Teresa del Val, María, 2021. "The hidden link between entrepreneurship and military education," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 163(C).
    4. Drautzburg, Thorsten, 2019. "Entrepreneurial tail risk: Implications for employment dynamics," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 85-100.
    5. Crecente-Romero, Fernando & Giménez-Baldazo, Mónica & Rivera-Galicia, Luis F., 2016. "Subjective perception of entrepreneurship. Differences among countries," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 69(11), pages 5158-5162.
    6. Röhe, Oke & Stähler, Nikolai, 2020. "Demographics and the decline in firm entry: Lessons from a life-cycle model," Discussion Papers 15/2020, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    7. Jie Chen & Mingzhi Hu, 2019. "What types of homeowners are more likely to be entrepreneurs? The evidence from China," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 52(3), pages 633-649, March.
    8. Cowling, Marc & Millán, José María & Yue, Wei, 2019. "Two decades of European self-employment: Is the answer to who becomes self-employed different over time and countries?," Journal of Business Venturing Insights, Elsevier, vol. 12(C).
    9. Richard Fabling, 2018. "Entrepreneurial beginnings: Transitions to self-employment and the creation of jobs," Working Papers 18_12, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
    10. Keane, M.P. & Thorp, S., 2016. "Complex Decision Making," Handbook of the Economics of Population Aging, in: Piggott, John & Woodland, Alan (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Population Aging, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 0, pages 661-709, Elsevier.
    11. José Alberto Molina, 2020. "Family and Entrepreneurship: New Empirical and Theoretical Results," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 41(1), pages 1-3, March.
    12. Francesco D’Acunto & Geoffrey Tate & Liu Yang, 2020. "Entrepreneurial Teams: Diversity of Skills and Early-Stage Growth," Working Papers 20-45, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
    13. Luc Laeven & Alexander Popov, 2017. "Waking Up from the American Dream: On the Experience of Young Americans during the Housing Boom of the 2000s," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 49(5), pages 861-895, August.
    14. Stähler, Nikolai, 2020. "The impact of aging and automation on the macroeconomy and inequality," Discussion Papers 30/2020, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    15. Massimo Anelli & Gaetano Basso & Giuseppe Ippedico & Giovanni Peri, 2019. "Youth Drain, Entrepreneurship and Innovation," NBER Working Papers 26055, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Tomoaki Kotera, 2020. "Sustainability of Social Security in the Aging Economy from the Perspective of Improving Health," IMES Discussion Paper Series 20-E-12, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan.
    17. Goldin, Ian & Koutroumpis, Pantelis & Lafond, François & Winkler, Julian, 2020. "Why is productivity slowing down?," MPRA Paper 99172, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Shai Bernstein & Emanuele Colonnelli & Davide Malacrino & Timothy McQuade, 2018. "Who Creates New Firms When Local Opportunities Arise?," NBER Working Papers 25112, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. Federico Barbiellini & Matteo Gomellini & Lorenzon Incoronato & Paolo Piselli, 2020. "The Age-Productivity Profile:Long-Run Evidence from Italian Regions," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 2019, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
    20. Naudé, Wim, 2019. "The decline in entrepreneurship in the West: Is complexity ossifying the economy?," MERIT Working Papers 2019-030, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    21. Sergio Salgado, 2019. "Technical Change and Entrepreneurship," 2019 Meeting Papers 634, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    22. Dantas Guimarães, Silvana & Ferreira Tiryaki, Gisele, 2020. "The impact of population aging on business cycles volatility: International evidence," The Journal of the Economics of Ageing, Elsevier, vol. 17(C).
    23. Shutao Cao & Mohanad Salameh & Mai Seki & Pierre St-Amant, 2017. "Trends in Firm Entry and New Entrepreneurship in Canada," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 43(3), pages 202-220, September.
    24. Ljunge, Martin & Stenkula, Mikael, 2020. "Fertile Soil for Intrapreneurship: Impartial Institutions and Human Capital," Working Paper Series 1368, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    25. Hu, Mingzhi & Su, Yinxin & Ye, Wenping, 2019. "Promoting or inhibiting: The role of housing price in entrepreneurship," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 148(C).

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J11 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • M51 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Personnel Economics - - - Firm Employment Decisions; Promotions

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