Extractive and Sustainable Development Reserves in Brazil: resilient alternatives to fisheries?
This study uses the socio-ecological resilience concept to compare two categories of fisheries co-management in Brazil: Extractive and Sustainable Development Reserves. Ecological resilience was estimated by the indicators: reserve areas, human density and the existence of buffer zones around the reserves. Indicators for social-resilience were grouped in two categories: flexibility (assessed by livelihood diversification and resources exploited) and capacity to organize (assessed by local/governrnenta1 demand for reserve creation, existence of fishing management rules or management plans, participation in the decision-making process and existence of self-monitoring). Amazonian reserves are larger, have buffer zones and people depend on a broader range of natural resources compared to those on the coast. However, the inhabitants of coastal reserves can rely on ecotourism and jobs outside the reserves, which may reduce local fishing pressure. Both regions have reserves created using top-down initiatives as well as those created from local demands. Yet, participation in decision making is not necessarily related to the origin of demand and the level of local involvement can be limited in either case. Unless co-management is followed by adaptive management, increased local participation of people in management and the diversification of economic sources. its benefit to resilience is limited.
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Volume (Year): 54 (2011)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
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