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The value of the last digit: statistical fraud detection with digit analysis


  • Stephan Dlugosz


  • Ulrich Müller-Funk



No abstract is available for this item.

Suggested Citation

  • Stephan Dlugosz & Ulrich Müller-Funk, 2009. "The value of the last digit: statistical fraud detection with digit analysis," Advances in Data Analysis and Classification, Springer;German Classification Society - Gesellschaft für Klassifikation (GfKl);Japanese Classification Society (JCS);Classification and Data Analysis Group of the Italian Statistical Society (CLADAG);International Federation of Classification Societies (IFCS), vol. 3(3), pages 281-290, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:advdac:v:3:y:2009:i:3:p:281-290 DOI: 10.1007/s11634-009-0048-5

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Akaike, Hirotugu, 1981. "Likelihood of a model and information criteria," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 3-14, May.
    2. Wan-Lun Wang & Tsung-I Lin, 2013. "An efficient ECM algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation in mixtures of t-factor analyzers," Computational Statistics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 751-769, April.
    3. Bouveyron, C. & Girard, S. & Schmid, C., 2007. "High-dimensional data clustering," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 502-519, September.
    4. McLachlan, G. J. & Peel, D. & Bean, R. W., 2003. "Modelling high-dimensional data by mixtures of factor analyzers," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 41(3-4), pages 379-388, January.
    5. Celeux, Gilles & Govaert, Gerard, 1992. "A classification EM algorithm for clustering and two stochastic versions," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 315-332, October.
    6. McNicholas, P.D. & Murphy, T.B. & McDaid, A.F. & Frost, D., 2010. "Serial and parallel implementations of model-based clustering via parsimonious Gaussian mixture models," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 711-723, March.
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    More about this item


    Fraud detection; Last digits; Digit analysis; Benford’s law; 60B10; 62P20; 91B99;

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