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Stock-Related Compensation and Product-Market Competition


  • Giancarlo Spagnolo


I show that as long as the stock market has perfect foresight, profits are distributed as dividends, and incentives are paid more than once or are deferred, stock-related compensation packages are strong incentives for managers to support tacit collusive agreements in repeated oligopolies. The stock market anticipates the losses from punishment phases and discounts them on stock prices, reducing managers' short-run gains from any deviation. When deferred, stock-related incentives may remove all managers' short-run gains from deviation, making collusion supportable at any discount factor. The results hold with managerial contracts of any length.

Suggested Citation

  • Giancarlo Spagnolo, 2000. "Stock-Related Compensation and Product-Market Competition," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 31(1), pages 22-42, Spring.
  • Handle: RePEc:rje:randje:v:31:y:2000:i:spring:p:22-42

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Carmen Beviá & Luis C. Corchón & and Yosuke, 2011. "Oligopolistic Equilibrium and Financial Constraints," Working Papers 547, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
    2. Lee, Gea M., 2010. "Optimal collusion with internal contracting," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 646-669, March.
    3. Herold, Daniel, 2015. "A Principal-Agent Model of Competition Law Compliance," Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 112980, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    4. Neubecker, Leslie, 2005. "Collusion and cyclic pricing by managers in markets with fluctuating demand," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 164-169, August.
    5. Patrick Legros & Andrew F. Newman, 2014. "Contracts, Ownership, and Industrial Organization: Past and Future," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 30(suppl_1), pages 82-117.
    6. Siegert, Caspar, 2014. "Bonuses and managerial misbehaviour," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 93-105.
    7. Jaideep Chowdhury, 2014. "Impact of financial constraint on incentive compensation and product market behavior," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 34(1), pages 115-124.
    8. Daniel Herold, 2017. "The Impact of Incentive Pay on Corporate Crime," MAGKS Papers on Economics 201752, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung).
    9. Etro, Federico, 2016. "Research in economics and industrial organization," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(4), pages 511-517.
    10. Spagnolo, Giancarlo, 2005. "Managerial incentives and collusive behavior," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(6), pages 1501-1523, August.
    11. Aghion, Philippe & Dewatripont, Mathias & Legros, Patrick & Zingales, Luigi (ed.), 2016. "The Impact of Incomplete Contracts on Economics," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199826216, June.
    12. Florence THEPOT & Jacques THEPOT, 2017. "Collusion, Managerial incentives and antitrust fines," Working Papers of LaRGE Research Center 2017-06, Laboratoire de Recherche en Gestion et Economie (LaRGE), Université de Strasbourg.
    13. Cestone, Giacinta & Fumagalli, Chiara, 2001. "Internal Capital Markets, Cross-Subsidization and Product Market Competition," CEPR Discussion Papers 2935, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    14. Salvatore Piccolo & Giancarlo Spagnolo, 2014. "Debt, Managers and Cartels," CSEF Working Papers 365, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
    15. Spagnolo, Giancarlo, 1998. "Debt as a (Credible) Collusive Device, or: "Everybody Happy but the Consumer"," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 243, Stockholm School of Economics, revised 01 Aug 2004.
    16. R. Andergassen, 2011. "Board of director collusion, managerial incentives and firm values," Working Papers wp795, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
    17. Giacinta Cestone & Chiara Fumagalli, 2003. "Winner-Picking or Cross-Subsidization? The Strategic Impact of Resource Flexibility in Business Groups," CSEF Working Papers 93, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
    18. Rudy Santore & Youping Li & Stephen Cotten, 2015. "Colluding with a conscience," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 114(3), pages 255-269, April.

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