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Integración mercantil de la milpa campesina y transformación de los conocimientos locales agrícolas


  • María Gabriela Zurita Benavides

    () (Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle)

  • Eric Léonard

    () (Institut de Recherche et du Développement)

  • Stéphanie M. Carrière

    () (Institut de Recherche et du Développement)


El maíz es la planta principal del sistema agrícola tradicional mexicano llamado “milpa” y en el desarrollo de la agricultura moderna en México. Analizaremos la evolución del sistema de conocimientos del cultivo del maíz (“savoir-faire”: prácticas, conocimientos, representaciones) para comprender la forma de integración de innovaciones agrícolas a dicho cultivo. A partir de una investigación de antropología cualitativa en dos ejidos del sureste del estado de Veracruz documentamos las lógicas culturales y mercantiles. La producción del maíz es un fenómeno social total, componente constitutivo de las sociedades rurales mexicanas en toda su complejidad, pedestal de la evolución de los conocimientos locales agrícolas; los cuales se han adaptado a las transformaciones del entorno ecológico, económico y socio-político. El abandono masivo de variedades de maíz nativo –10% de la producción local hoy en día– y la valorización de variedades mejoradas son indicadores de la preponderancia de lógicas mercantiles sobre aquellas de consumo familiar. Encontramos que la conservación de maíces nativos depende de la estructura social, de sus formas de adaptación al modelo agrícola comercial, y en particular de la resiliencia de las prácticas de la agricultura de autoconsumo e intercambio de productos a nivel de las redes sociales.

Suggested Citation

  • María Gabriela Zurita Benavides & Eric Léonard & Stéphanie M. Carrière, 2012. "Integración mercantil de la milpa campesina y transformación de los conocimientos locales agrícolas," Revista Iberoamericana de Economía Ecológica, Red Iberoamericana de Economía Ecológica, vol. 18, pages 37-51, Abril.
  • Handle: RePEc:rib:revibe:rev18_03

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item


    Maíz; variedades mejoradas; paquetes tecnológicos; conservación; adaptación;

    JEL classification:

    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
    • Q10 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - General
    • Z13 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Language; Social and Economic Stratification
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • O54 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Latin America; Caribbean


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